‘Molecular Imprinting in Water’ For Target-Specific Drug Designing- Science Behind Homeopathic Potentization
‘Drug designing’ is an advanced branch of modern pharmaceutical chemistry, which is involved with the process of developing new medicinal substances appropriate to the specific biological targets in the organism. Such a ‘designer drug’ is most commonly a small organic molecule which can inhibit or activate the functioning of a target biomolecule such as a protein, thereby resulting in a therapeutic process in the organism. Essentially, ‘drug designing’ involves the development of small molecules that are complementary in ‘shape’ and ‘charge’ to the biomolecular target to which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Modern drug designing protocols utilize computer modeling techniques also. This type of modeling is known as ‘computer-aided drug design’. Actually, ‘drug design’ is involved with ‘ligand’ design. Prediction of binding affinity of molecules to be designed is the first step in a successful modeling technique. Many other properties such as bioavailability, metabolic half life, lack of side effects, also should be optimized before a designed ‘ligand’ can become a safe and efficacious drug. Most of these ‘other’ characteristics are often very difficult to optimize using presently available drug design techniques.
Selection of drug target is most important in “drug designing”. A drug target is typically a key molecule involved in a particular metabolic or signaling pathway that is specific to a disease condition or pathology, or to the infectivity or survival of a microbial pathogen. Most of the therapeutic inteventions aim to inhibit the functioning of the ‘pathologic’ pathway in the diseased state by causing a key molecule to stop functioning. Drug molecules may be designed that bind to the active region and inhibit this key molecule. Some other therapeutic interventions actually enhance the ‘normal’ biochemical pathway by promoting specific molecules in the ‘normal’ pathways that may have been affected in the diseased state. Main challenge in all ‘drug therapies’ including ‘designer drugs’ is that these drug molecules should not affect any other important “off-target” molecules or ‘antitargets’ that may be similar in appearance to the target molecule, since drug interactions with off-target molecules may lead to undesirable side effects.
Designer drugs are small organic molecules produced through chemical synthesis, but biopolymer-based drugs (also known as biologics) produced through biological processes are becoming increasingly more common in modern drug designing.
‘Ligand-based drug design’ and ‘structure-based drug design’ are two major technologies now utilized in drug designing technologies.
Ligand-based drug design is based on the knowledge of other molecules that can bind to the biological target of interest. These other molecules may be used to derive a ‘pharmacophore’ which defines the minimum necessary structural characteristics a molecule must possess in order to bind to the target. In other words, a model of the biological target may be built based on the knowledge of what binds to it and this model in turn may be used to design new molecular entities that interact with the target.
Structure-based drug design is based on the knowledge of the three dimensional structure of the biological target obtained through methods such as x-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy. Using the structure of the biological target, candidate drugs that are predicted to bind with high affinity and selectivity to the target may be designed using interactive graphics.
Main draw back of ‘designer drugs’ is that there is a chance for these drug molecules affecting “off-target” molecules or ‘antitargets’ having similarity to the target molecules. Such interactions with off-target molecules may lead to grave consequences. Optimizing of various factors such as bioavailability, metabolic half life, and lack of side effects are the real challenges facing “drug designing” technology.
Molecular Imprinting in Polymers:
‘Molecular imprinting in polymers’ is a fast grownig research area that may be interesting to people engaged in developing “drug designing” techniques. A lot of research is currently going on over this subject the world over. This technology involves the imprinting of synthetic polymer substances using enzymes or such macromolecules as ‘guest’molecules. As a result of imprinting, nano cavities with 3-d spacial configurations complementary to the ‘guest’ molecules will be created in the interaction surfaces of the polymers. These imprinted polymers, by virtue of the nanocavities they contain can be used to bind molecules with configurational similarity to ‘guest’ molecules. They are at present widely used in various laboratory assays as powerful adsorption surfaces. MIPs are also found to be of much practical use in various areas of science and technology .
Molecular imprinted polymers of today cannot be used as therapeutic agents, since they are totally foreign substances to the organism. More over, native enzymes can not degrade the polymers even if they can play a therapeutic role in the organism.
Molecular imprinting may become part of future drug designing techniques, only if the search for safer substances and methods for molecular imprinting happens to be successful.
Molecular Imprinted Proteins:
Biopolymer-based drugs (also known as biologics) produced through biological processes are becoming increasingly more common in modern drug designing. But the revolutionary concept of molecular imprinting in proteins is only in its emerging stage, which may have implications in drug designing techniques. It has already been acknowledged that the biological molecules presently classified as antibodies are nothing but native globulin proteins subjected to natural molecular imprinting process with foreign pathologic proteins acting as ‘guest’ molecules. Scientists have already realized the fact that the much discussed pathologic molecules known as ‘prions’ are nothing but disfigured protein molecules subjected to molecular imprinting. Protiens, being polymers with complex and flexible tertiary structures, are expected to be a very good medium for molecular imprinting. Different types of protein based substances, subjected to artificial molecular imprinting, may evolve in the future as effective therapeutic agents and laboratory reagents.
Apart from protein molecules, different types of biopolymers such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids also may be experimented as medium for molecular imprinting.
Native proteins extracted from the patients could be subjected to molecular imprinting with appropriate ligands or other pathologic molecules acting as ‘guest’ molecules and used as target oriented therapeutic agents. But the problem remains that such imprinted proteins can be used only in the individual whose proteins are used for imprinting. Otherwise it may result in grave anaphylactic reactions. Moreover these imprinted proteins may remain in the organism for very long periods, without undergoing degradation, and cause ever new pathological molecular blocks. Such issues have to be addressed properly.
Molecular Imprinting in Water:
Our protracted search for a safe and reliable universal medium for molecular imprinted drug designing finally takes us to the study of wonderful physico-chemical properties of the most abundant substance on earth called water. But the concept and technology of molecular imprinting in water still remains in very infantile stage. The author is of the opinion that with its strange polymer-like behaviours, capable of forming hydrogen-bonded supra-molecular structures, water can be the ideal candidate for molecular imprinted drug designing in future.
Though in a slighly lesser level, Ethyl Alcohol and Lactose are also capable of forming polymer-like supra-molecular formations through hydrogen bonding, and hence may be onsidered as candidates for molecular imprinting experiments. Possibilities of these substances in combination with water also have to be explored.
Water(H2O) is a wonderful substance with strange physico–chemical properties arising from its peculiar supra-molecular structure. Water is a solvent with higher polarity than similar liquids. H–O–H bond angle is 105 degrees. That means, water molecule is a dipole. Because of this peculiarity, water molecules can exist like a supra-molecular network through hydrogen bonding. A minimum number of five water molecules will be contained in this network. Such supra-molecular formations are called pentamers. Most of the wonderful properties of water arise from this peculiar capacity of hydrogen bonding and resultant supra-molecular formations. Water molecules (H2O) are symmetric (point group C2ν) with two mirror planes of symmetry and a 2-fold rotation axis. The hydrogen atoms may possess parallel or antiparallel nuclear spin. The water molecule consists of two light atoms (H) and a relatively heavy atom (O). The approximately 16-fold difference in mass gives rise to its ease of rotation and the significant relative movements of the hydrogen nuclei, which are in constant and significant relative movement.
Although not often perceived as such, water is a very reactive molecule available at a high concentration. This reactivity, however, is greatly moderated at ambient temperatures due to the extensive hydrogen bonding. Each water molecules possess a strongly nucleophilic oxygen atom that enables many of life‘s reactions, as well as ionizing to produce reactive hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Reduction of the hydrogen bonding at high temperatures or due to electromagnetic fields results in greater reactivity of the water molecules.
As liquid water is so common-place in our everyday lives, it is often regarded as a ‘typical’ liquid. In reality, water is most atypical as a liquid, behaving as a quite different material at low temperatures to that when it is hot. It has often been stated that life depends on these anomalous properties of water. In particular, the high cohesion between molecules gives it a high freezing and melting point, such that we and our planet are bathed in liquid water. The large heat capacity, high thermal conductivity and high water content in organisms contribute to thermal regulation and prevent local temperature fluctuations, thus allowing us to more easily control our body temperature. The high latent heat of evaporation gives resistance to dehydration and considerable evaporative cooling. Water is an excellent solvent due to its polarity, high dielectric constant and small size, particularly for polar and ionic compounds and salts. It has unique hydration properties towards biological macromolecules (particularly proteins and nucleic acids) that determine their three-dimensional structures, and hence their functions, in solution. Hydration of biological molecules results in formation of gels that can reversibly undergo the gel-sol phase transitions that underlie many cellular mechanisms. Water ionize and allows easy proton exchange between molecules, thus contributing to the richness of the ionic interactions in living organisms.
In reality, hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole force. It is a force of attraction formed between partial electro negative atom which is part of another molecule. The reason for strength is the partial positive charge attained by hydrogen. Hydrogen is capable of establishing similar bonds with the atoms of nitrogen, fluorine and oxygen. That is to say that the basis of hydrogen bonding is the attraction between one hydrogen atom which is part of a molecule which is attached to oxygen or nitrogen and oxygen or nitrogen which remains part of another molecule. This force is less powerful than the co–valent bonds which keeps the atoms inside molecule bound together. But these less powerful bonds are responsible for the wonderful bio–chemical qualities of water.
In the ordinary liquid state, in spite of 80% of the electrons being concerned with bonding, the three atoms in water do not stay together, as the hydrogen atoms are constantly exchanging between water molecules due to protonation/deprotonation processes. Both acids and bases catalyze this exchange and even when at its slowest (at pH 7), the average time for the atoms in an H2O molecule to stay together is only about a millisecond. As this brief period is, however, much longer than the timescales encountered during investigations into water’s hydrogen bonding or hydration properties, water is usually treated as a permanent structure.
The presence of ethyl alcohol in water is considered to be a factor reducing the rate of protonation/deprotonation processes, thereby enhancing the stability of hydration shells.
Hydrogen bond strength can be affected by electromagnetic and magnetic effects.
Any factors, such as polarization, that reduces the hydrogen bond length, is expected to increase its covalency. There is still some dispute over the size of this covalency, however any covalency will increase the network stability relative to purely electrostatic effects. As hydrogen bond strength depends almost linearly on its length (shorter length giving stronger hydrogen bonding), it also depends almost linearly (outside extreme values) on the temperature and pressure .
Hydrogen bonded chains (that is, O-H····O-H····O) are cooperative; the breakage of the first bond is the hardest, then the next one is weakened, and so on. Thus unzipping may occur with complex macromolecules held together by hydrogen bonding, for example, nucleic acids. Such cooperativity is a fundamental property of liquid water where hydrogen bonds are up to 250% stronger than the single hydrogen bond in the dimer. A strong base at the end of a chain may strengthen the bonding further.
Water-Ethyl Alcohol Mixture :
At this stage we have to understand a few facts about Ethyl Alcohol(CH3- CH2 – OH ). The molecules of alcohol also have the dipole structure as water molecules. It is possible for them to establish mutual connection through hydrogen bonding. The molecular weight of alcohol molecul is 46. The molecular weight of water(H2O) is 18. That means that the number of water molecules contained in 18 gram of water and the number of alcohol molecules contained in 46 gram of ethyl alcohol are equal. When alcohol and water are thoroughly mixed alcohol molecules network with water molecules through hydration bonds, The mobility of water molecules is restricted by the bonds established with alcohol molecules. Hence, hydration shells formed in alcohol–water mixture are comparatively more stable. The count of alcohol molecules and the count of water molecules contained in their mixture in 73:27 ratio will be equal. (73% w/w. alcohol and 27% w/w water) This mixturei is known as (40 power spirit).
Ideal medium for molecular imprining is supposed to contains 87% w/w of alcohol and 13% w/w of water. In this ratio, the number of alcohol molecules will be about more than that of of water molecules. Such a ratio will be very suitable for the production of stable hydration shells. More over, the presence of ethyl alcohol in water is considered as a factor reducing the rate of protonation/deprotonation processes, thereby enhancing the stability of hydration shells
We know that water is a good solvent. Let us see what happens when some foreign molecules are made to dissolve in water. If a foreign(called ‘guest’) molecule, ion, or colloidal particle happens to enter the matrix of 3-dimensional dynamic network of water molecules, they are entrapped inside this network. Water molecules arrange themselves around the ‘guest’ molecule in a peculiar way by the formation of hydrogen bonding. These formations of water molecules around the ‘guest’ molecules is known as hydration shells. These hydration shells exist in a dynamic state, and are more or less unstable. The ‘guest’ molecules dissolved in water exist in a state of being entrapped inside these hydration shells. This phenomenon can be seen both in ionic solutions and colloidal solutions. Obviously, hydration shells assume an internal spacial arrangement exactly fitting to the 3-dimensional spacial configuration of the ‘guest’ molecule entrapped in them. If we could devise some technique to remove the entrapped ‘guest’ molecules from these hydration shells, without disturbing the hydrogen bonds between the constituent water molecules, these hydration shells can retain the molecular memory of the molecular configurations of the removed ‘guest’ molecules. This rarely studied phenomenon underlies the much debated controversial ‘molecular memory of water’. Actual mechanism and forces underlying this phenomenon have to be investigated minutely by physical scientists. Minute changes occuring in the electron clouds of atoms of water molecules during the formation of hydration shells may be one factor responsible for this phenomenon. It has been well proven that these hydration shells later show a peculiar capability to differentially recognize the original ‘guest’ molecules which were responsible for their formation. This may be due to the existence of some imprinted memory of those host molecules retained in the hydration shells. This imprinting of memory may be compared to formation of finger prints. As in the case of finger prints, configuration of these molecular imprints also will be a complementary negative of ‘guest’ molecules. These empty hydration shells, or supra-molecular formations of water subjected to molecular imprinting, may be called ‘hydrosomes’, which means, minute ‘cavities of water’.
Homeopathic process of potentization may be a crude method of preparing hydrosomes, imprinted with various drug molecules(‘guest’), for utilizing as therapeutic agents. It should be specially noted that the medium used for homeopathic potentisation is not pure water, but it is mixed with ethyl alcohol in a particular ratio. It may be inferred that the presence of camparatively heavy ethyl alcohol molecules in this mixture may be contributing to stabilize the hydrosomes, preventing their easy dissociation. The convergent forces of rotational movements to which the mixture is subjected as part of homeopathic potentization, may also be a contributing factor in stabilizing the empty hydration shells.
This peculiar 3-d configuration of ‘hydrosomes’ are destroyed only when the energy level of water molecules are disturbed by the effect of heat, electricity, magnetism and other electro magnetic radiations. As stated earlier the hydration shells formed in pure water are comparatively unstable. Here lies the importance of the fact that homeopathic potencies are made using alcohol- water mixture.
Information we recently receive from various research institutions, regarding the wonderful supra-molecular structures of various materials and their hitherto unknown peculiar properties, may greatly contribute in our efforts to devise a protocol for molecular imprinted drug designing using water. Studies on ‘water clusters’, ‘crystalline structure of water’, ‘shape memory property’, ‘molecular imprinting’, ‘nano technology’, ‘clathrate formations’ and other diverse phenomena are offering promising indications in this direction. We have to utilize all these new revealations in our scientific study regarding the possibility of developing a technology of drug designing by molecular imprinting in water.
We all know that water exists as ice crystals in its solid form. But it has been recently observed that water can exist even in its liquid form in crystals. In reality, water formed by melting of ice is in a state of liquid crystals. The lattice structure which is formed through hydration bonds is responsible for this phenomenon. Molecular imprinting in water is much interested in this area of research pertaining to this peculiar crystalline nature of water. It is believed that in the process of molecular imprinting of water using ‘guest’ molecules, this crystalline structure of water plays a crucial role. It is likely that more advanced studies about dynamics of crystallization of water may help us to evolve a perfect technology for molecular imprinting in water.
The studies about Clathrate Compounds or host-guest compounds in supra-molecular chemistry is an area in which we should have sincere interest. Clathrates are the molecular networks which are formed when gases dissolve in water under high pressure. They exist in a peculiar host–guest relationship. The studies about this phenomenon are still in their infancy. Clathrates have a crystalline nature, existing as molecular networks, formed by a process of water molecules arranging around the guest molecules. The studies about the dynamics of clathrate formation are also likely to help in evolving a perfect protocol for molecular imprinting in water. Even if the host molecules are removed from clathrates, the network of water molecules have been found to remain intact. More over, the existing clathrates can induce the formation of similar clathrates. It will be very useful to consider these above discoveries connecting them with the phenomenon of molecular imprinting.
A lot of studies has been so far published regarding shape memory materials. Several alloys having crystalline structure have been observed to possess shape memory property. Such materials are known as SMART materials. This phenomenon also has to be understood well while trying to evolve a molecular imprinting technique of drug designing.
It is in the phenomenon of ‘molecular memory of water’ itself that we naturally land on when we attempt to develop molecular imprinted drugs. We have already seen that the alcohol–water molecules contained in the medium used for imprinting arrange themselves around the ‘guest’ molecules, and form hydration shells. We should develop a way to systematically remove the ‘guest’ molecules entrapped in the hydration shells, so that empty hydration shells or ‘hydrosomes’ remain. These ‘hydrosomes’ will be imprinted with the three-dimensional ‘finger print’ of ‘guest’ molecules used for imprinting.
When molecular imprinted water is introduced into the organism by any route, is carried by the body fluids, and transported to different parts of body. When molecular imprints come in the vicinity of ligands or active groups of pathological foreign molecules having similarity to the original ‘guest’ molecules, these molecular imprints selectively bind to those pathological molecules. By this process, pathological foreign molecules are prevented from binding with biological molecules, thereby relieving the biological molecules from pathological molecular blocks. This can be described as some sort of ‘molecular scavenging’ or entrapping of pathological molecules, by ‘hydrosomes’ or “molecular imrints”.
Drugs designed through molecular imprinting in water will be the safest of all therapeutic agents so far used in the history medical science. Though there is a chance for these molecular imprints affecting “off-target” molecules or ‘antitargets’ having similarity to the target molecules, such interactions will be of very transient nature, since these molecular imprints will be easily degraded into constituent water-ethyl alcohol molecules. Such temporary interactions with off-target molecules may not lead to any dangerous consequences. Factors such as bioavailability, metabolic half life, and lack of side effects also will be obviously remain in favorable range.
Using various ligands and pathological molecules involved in each disease process as ‘guest’ molecules, we can develop most appropriate specifc designer drugs against almost any disease. Instead of original pathological molecules or ligands, drug molecules having configurational similarity to them also can be used as “guest” molecules in the molecular imprinting protocol. Homeopathic potentization utilizes this strategy, which is the real essence of “similia similibus curentur”. I hereby appeal to the government and scientific community to take up this task with urgent priority, so that a whole new range of safe and effective designer drugs could be developed though this novel process of molecular imprinting in water.
When I talk about “combinations of post-avogadro diluted drugs”, some “classical” friends come with the quesion whether these combinations are “proved”? One of them declared: “If the the symptoms of combination drugs are same as single drug in provings, then only we can accept this theory.. Without clinical proving of combination drugs how we can accept this theory sir.”
First of all, I am not bothered whether anybody “accepts” my suggestions or not. No compulsions at all. I have already explained my rationale regarding “combinations of post-avogadro diluted drugs”. If you are capable of understanding my rationale, and convinced about the the scientific wisdom underlying it, you can accept.
Asking for “proving” of “combinations of post-avogadro diluted drugs” by itself shows that they have not seen or understood my explanations regarding drug proving.
A drug substance could be “proved” only if it can act upon biological molecules and inhibit their normal interactions. Only then it can produce a state of “drug pathology” as well as “drug symptoms”. Inorder to act upon biological molecules and change their actions, drug substance should contain some “chemical” molecules. Most of the drug substances contain diverse types of chemical molecules having their own individual chemical properties. During drug proving, a drug substance interact with our biological molecules not as a singular entity, but the individual drug molecules contained in the drug substance act upon various biological targets by their individual chemical properties, and produce molecular inhibitions that are expressed through diverse groups of symptoms that we compile in our materia medica.
Dear friends, please understand, durg substances potentized above avogadro limit or 12c will not contain even a single drug molecule, if they were genuinely potentized.
Your idea of “proving” post avogadro diluted drugs actually originated from this lack of scientific understanding regarding how drug substances act upon the body and produce symptoms. If you are talking about some mysterious “dynamic energy” that works upon a spiritual “vital force”, sorry sir, I am not interested in discussing that nonsense again and again. I have already done it more than enough earlier.
According to my view, potentization involves a process of MOLECULAR IMPRINTING. Spacial conformations of drug molecules are imprinted as three dimensional nanocavities in the water-alcohol supramolecular matrices. Each individual chemical molecule contained in the drug substance undergoes molecular imprinting as an individual unit. As such, drugs potentized above 12c or avogadro limit will contain diverse types of molecular imprints representing the diverse types of chemical molecules contained in the original drug substance. These individual molecular Imprints are the ACTIVE PRINCIPLES of post avogadro diluted drugs we use in homeopathy. Molecular Imprints act as ARTIFICIAL BINDING POCKETS for pathogenic molecules by their conformtional affinities, deactivate them, and remove the Molecular inhibitions they have produced in the biological molecules. This is the biological mechanism of Homeopathic cure. Molecular imprints cannot interfere in the normal interactions between biological molecules and their natural ligands, and hence, cannot produce any molecular errors in normal vital processes. That is why I say post avogadro diluted drugs cannot produce any pathological conditions or produce any drug symptom. Obviously, idea of conducting drug proving using drugs potentized above post avogadro limit is simply RIDICULOUS!
When we combine post avogadro diluted drugs, we are actually adding more MOLECULAR IMPRINTS together. Since Molecular Imprints cannot interact each other, there is no harm in combining any number of potentized drugs. Individual Molecular Imprints will remain as such, and act only upon specific pathogenic molecules having conformational affinity when introduced into the body as therapeutic agents.
My scientific explanations of Homeopathy may not agree with your “classical” beliefs that evolved in the 200 year old primitive knowledge environment. Sorry for that. Either you update yourselves, or reject my ideas and remain eternally blind! It is your choice!
AN MIT STUDY OF ARSENIC, AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN MOLECULAR IMPRINTS FORMS FOR PREVENTION OF COMPLICATIONS AND MORTALITY IN CURRENT PANDEMIC
Arsenic Album or Arsenic Trioxide is a chemical substance that can inhibit more than 200 essential enzymes in our body involved in diverse types of biomolecular processes related with genetic transcription, metabolism, energy conversions etc etc. This is due to the ability of Arsenic ions to bind to the cysteine radicals which are part of active sites all enzymes. Almost every biochemical pathways in the living body are deranged by the action of arsenic. This is the reason why the homeopathic materia medica of arsenic album is so rich with symptoms associated with almost all organs and systems of the body.
Arsenic content may be high in people due to living in certain areas, consuming arsenic rich ground water, cigarette smoking, eating unpolished rice, prawns and crabs, exposure to arsenic containing environments, etc etc. Arsenic may enter the body through contaminated liquors, Chinese, Ayurvedic, unani or Herbal preparations, industrial exposures, chemically treated wooden furniture etc also. Arsenic content will naturally be high in aged people, as it has a tendency to accumulated in the body over years through exposures.
It is an already established fact that during viral infections, persons having high levels of arsenic in their body are prone to develop serious complications such as respiratory failure, acute myocardial degeneration, renal failures, liver failures, multiple organ failures etc faster than those having low arsenic levels.
Researchers working upon arsenic toxicity problems in certain arsenic affected countries have already proved that ARSENIC ALBUM 30 can antidote and reverse the chronic effects of arsenic toxicity, and remove the symptoms.
My suggestion to the experts involved in current pandemic research is that determination of arsenic levels in the body of covid patients should be made mandatory, so that high risk people could be identified and better care provided.
Arsenic Album 30 contains MOLECULAR IMPRINTS of arsenic trioxide molecules. Molecular imprints are three dimensional nanocavities formed in water-alcohol supra-molecular matrix through a host-guest interactions between templates and diluent medium during the process of homeopathic POTENTIZATION. Molecular imprints of arsenic trioxide contained in Arsenicum Album 30 can act as artificial binding pockets for arsenic ions and deactivate them, thereby removing the molecular inhibitions they have produced in the enzyme systems of the body.
By using Arsenicum Album 30 in sufficient quantities and frequencies to provide molecular imprints in optimum levels, it will be possible to prevent dangerous complications and multiple organ failures in patients affected with current pandemic, so as to prevent the chances of morbidities due to the disease. Complications and mortality rates could be definitely lowered by use of Arsenic Alb 30.
I don’t know how to get this very important message reach the right persons in right time, or how to convince the scientific basis of this approach described above.
A word to homeopaths : It is a nonsense idea that Arsenic album 30 will “boost immunity”. Arsenic Alb 30 will not contain any chemical molecules that can act as antigens to initiate production of antibodies and boost immune system. But it will surely prevent complications even if you get infected, if molecular imprints of arsenic is available in the body during the time of virus infection.
Homeopaths currently involved in distribution of Arsenicum Album 30 should realize the hard truth that the dosage you are giving now is actually of no use. 4 or 5 medicated sugar pills for 3-4 days you give now cannot provide the sufficient quantity of molecular imprints required to produce desired biological effects. To ensure optimum availability of molecular imprints, medicine should be used in drop doses at least twice a day until the epidemic threat is over. Please understand, it is not any mysterious “dynamic energy” or “vibrations” that work in our potentized drugs. It is “material” MOLECULAR IMPRINTS, that act as “artificial binding pockets” for pathogenic molecules, and deactivate them. As such, dosage and repetition should be appropriate to ensure this availability. I would suggest minimum 1 or 2 drops direct on tongue bds until epidemic is over.
There is a wild propaganda going on, claiming that homeopathy medicine ASPIDOSPERMA is the GENUS EPIDEMICUS of current pandemic, and people are desperately running from store to store to get a bottle of this “miracle drug” to save their dear ones gasping for oxygen. They also recommend the use of Vanadium as an “oxygen supplier”.
It is claimed that a few drops of “mother tincture” of aspidosperma given twice or thrice for a few days will relieve the breathlessness, and will be helpful in curing the disease.
Problem underlying this claim as well as the propaganda is that homeopaths fail to understand the difference between MOLECULAR forms and MOLECULAR IMPRINTS forms of drugs.
They also fail to remember the primary lesson that if a drug is found to be GENUS EPIDEMIC for a disease, it will be administered only in potencies above 12c, and it is NEVER used in mother tincture form.
Crude drugs, mother Tinctures, Potencies below 12c and biochemic TRITURATIONS are MOLECULAR forms of drugs, since they contain molecules of drug substances.
Potencies above 12c or Post-avogadro dilutions do not contain drug molecules, but MOLECULAR IMPRINTS only.
We must not forget the fact that drug symptoms provided in our materia medica actually constitute the list of symptoms that are generated in healthy persons by the use of these drugs in crude form. Indiscriminate long-term use of mother tinctures containing plant enzymes, poisonous alkaloids, glycosides and various other phyto-chemical ingredients is an unpardonable crime even if it is done in the name of homeopathy. The chemical molecules contained in these tinctures might give temporary relief by nutritional supplementation, or by competitive relationship towards pathological molecules due to their conformational similarity. But it is evident from their symptomatologies that those chemical molecules are capable of creating dangerous pathological molecular inhibitions in various bio-chemic channels in the organism.
We should never forget that the subjective and objective symptoms provided in our materia medica were createdby the molecular errors happened in healthy individuals during drug proving.
Regarding ASPIDOSPERMA, even though homeopaths enthusiastically quote “It stimulates the respiratory centers and increases the oxygen in the blood” from Boericke materia Medica, they conveniently ignore the following statement in Clarke’s materia Medica: “Hale says ASPIDOSPERMA produces in animals respiratory paralysis, slowed heart, and paralysis of extremities.”
Even though it is said in materia Medica that VANADIUM is an “oxygen carrier”, please understand, it is only a chemical property of Vanadium in its molecular form. Vanadium potentized above 12c will not contain any single molecule of Vanadium, and hence, it is totally irrational to expect Vanadium in potentized form to act as an “oxygen supplier”. The widely quoted statement from materia Medica “it increases amount of hemoglobin, also combines its oxygen with toxines and destroys their virulence” is actually applicable to molecular forms of Vanadium only. Vanadium 30 will not contain even a single molecule of Vanadium, and hence, this property cannot be attributed to vanadium 30.
Same time, vanadium in Molecular form is highly toxic, and it is not at all safe to use Vanadium in 3x or potencies below 12c. It is now well known that molecular forms of VANADIUM is a competitive inhibitor of various enzymes such as ATPases, alkaline and acid phosphatases, and protein-phosphotyrosine phosphatases, and hence, very dangerous if given in Molecular form.
Molecular forms of drugs act by the chemical properties of constituent molecules, whereas MOLECULAR IMPRINTS forms of drugs act by the conformational properties of Molecular imprints.
Since Molecular imprints cannot interfere in the normal interactions between biological molecules and their natural ligands, Molecular imprints forms of drugs cannot produce any short term or long term adverse effects.
On the other hand, Molecular forms of drugs can interact with biological molecules and produce inhibitions, and may cause harmful adverse effects. Even though mother Tinctures are considered Homeopathy drugs, they are no way different from allopathy drugs, when considered in terms of their active principles as well as biological mechanism of actions.
We know, many homeopathic practioners prescribe plenty of mother tinctures, low potency preparations and biochemic TRITURATIONS. They consider it genuine homeopathy, as they manufactured by homeopathy drug companies, and bear the label Homeopathic Medicines. They ignore the fact that mother Tinctures are never prescribed according to similia principles, or on the basis of totality of symptoms.
Mother tinctures and other Molecular forms of drugs may relieve some of the symptoms, due to their allopathic actions. But they are not only un-homeopathic in actions, but chances of emerging new pathological conditions due to them is a reality.
Homeopaths should understand, it is ideal to treat patients using potencies above 12c, which do not contain any trace of the drug molecules of the original drug. If our selection of drug is correct, there is no any chance of failure in such a protocol.
Actually, mother tinctures will have to be considered as identical to Ayurveda, Allopathy or Herbal treatment. Those homeopaths who indulge in excessive use of mother tinctures, without bothering about their constituent drug molecules and their adverse long term impacts on the organism, are more hazardous to human health than our allopathic counterparts. I humbly request them to think over.
For example, from our materia medica works, it may be understoodthat most of those people who had participated in proving of Hydrastis Canadensis developed symptoms of gastric ulcer and hyperacidity along with many other deep seated pathological conditions. Doctors who administer large doses of Hydrastis Tincture to relive gastric symptoms as part of homoeopathic treatment should note this point . Of course, we may get temporary relief, by the way of competitive relationships with pathological molecules, due to conformational similarity of drug molecules and pathogenic molecules. Prolonged use of Hydrastis Tincture not only produce the symptoms mentioned in the materia medica, but may even induce very serious genetic errors to happen. If hydrastis is the similimum for the patient, it will be effective in high potencies. This is real homeopathy.
Please do not be provoked when I say that those who give Vanadium 3x for supplying oxygen, Passiflora for inducing sleep, Rauwolfia for lowering blood pressure and Syzijium for high blood sugar in their tincture form, are not practicing ideal Homeopathy even if they may be well known homeopaths.
No homeopath with some common sense, who had carefully read the material medica of Alfalfa will dare to prescribe it as tonics to improve the appetite and general health of innocent children. It is evident from its symptomatology that Alfalfais capable of producing diabetes, bulimia, and upsetting the normal functioning of kidneys.
We should remember that there was no exact knowledge regarding the long term evil effects of many drugs, when many of them were proved and their materia medica prepared. There was least knowledge about the genetic disorders they were likely to produce. It is found in Boecricke Materiamedica that Arsenic Bromide Mother Tincture is indicated for Diebetes. No physician with scientific awareness will even think of prescribing it today. Who will now dare to prescribe Ars iod 3x, Iodum 3x, Sulphur Q, or various compounds of Mercury and Lead only because they are found in our text books of Materia Medica?
We know a lot of homeopaths who make their patients consume for prolonged periods, the mother tinctures of several drugs, including various patented combinations flooding the market in the name of Homeopathy. How can Homeopaths prescribe them without any prick of conscience? Those who love homoeopathy should take urgent initiative to prevent such tendencies either through awareness programs and campaigns, or through stringent legislational procedures.
Since crude drugs and mother tinctures contain drug molecules that can act upon biological molecules, they can also bind to various biological targets in the organism. Obviously, there is always chance for creation of new molecular inhibitions and drug-induced pathologies when we use crude drugs and mother tinctures. That is the draw back of using mother tinctures even if they are similimum.
Advantage of drugs potentized above 12c, also known as post-avogadro Dilutions, is that they do not contain any drug molecule, but only molecular imprints, which are only supra-molecular clusters of water and alcohol molecules. They can act upon pathogenic molecules only, not upon biological molecules. As such, potentized drugs cannot do any further harm to organism.
That is why MIT says use of mother Tinctures and other Molecular forms of drugs cannot be considered genuine Homeopathy. To be genuinely homeopathic regarding active principles as well as biological mechanism of action, we should use only post-avogadro diluted drugs.
Many homeopaths recently suggest VANADIUM 30 as a remedy for oxygen deficiency in blood during the current pandemic. This suggestion is based on the statements in some homeopathic materia Medica works regarding the “oxygen carrier” capacity of vanadium.
First of all, let us see what is said in Boericke Materia Medica about Vanadium:
“Its action is that of an oxygen carrier and a catalyzer, hence its use in wasting diseases.
Increases amount of hemoglobin, also combines its oxygen with toxines and destroys their virulence. Also increases and stimulates phagocytes. A remedy in degenerative conditions of the liver and arteries.
Anorexia and symptoms of gastro intestinal irritation; albumen, casts and blood in urine. Tremors; vertigo; hysteria and melancholia; neuro-retinitis and blindness. Anaemia, emaciation. Cough dry, irritating and paroxysmal, sometimes with haemorrhages. Irritation of nose, eyes and throat. Tuberculosis, chronic rheumatism, diabetes.
Acts as a tonic to digestive function and in early tuberculosis. Arterio-sclerosis, sensation as if heart was compressed, as if blood had no room in the aorta. Anxious pressure on whole chest. Fatty heart. Degenerative states, has brain softening. Atheroma of arteries of brain and liver.
Dose: 6-12 potency. The best form is Vanadiate of Soda, 2 mg daily, by mouth.”
Clarke’s Dictionary of Materia Medica says about Vanadium as follows :
“Addison’s disease. Atheroma. Fatty degeneration.
Innutrition.Burnett tells how he came to use Vanadium through reading the result of some experiments on animals in which the Salts of Vanadium produced “true cell destruction, the pigment escaping, the liver being hit hardest.” Burnett had at the time a case of “fatty liver, atheroma of the arteries, much pain corresponding to the course of the basilar artery, large, deeply pigmented patches on forehead, profound adynamia.” Vanadium restored the patient, who was seventy, and at eighty he was “hale and hearty.” Marc Jousset tells of experiments with salts of Vanadium, chiefly the meta-vanadate of sodium, by Lyonnet and others. Animals poisoned by intravenous injections rapidly develop Cheyne-Stokes respiration; with little or no action on circulation or blood. These observers gave Vanadates to two hundred patients suffering from tuberculosis, chlorosis, chronic rheumatism, neurasthenia etc, and produced in nearly all cases increased appetite, strength, and weight. The amount of urea was also increased. They regard Vanadium as “an energetic excitant of nutrition,” and probably an oxydent stimulating organic combustion. The dose was 2-5 mgr. in twenty-four hours, and only on three separate days in the week.”
Obviously, Boericke and Clarke were saying about the use of “2-5 mg of Sodium Vanadate daily”. Not Vanadium 30! It makes a big difference.
Sodium vanadate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na3VO4·2H2O (sodium orthovanadate dihydrate). It is a colorless, water-soluble solid.
Vanadates exhibit a variety of biological activities, in part because they serve as structural mimics of PHOSPHATES. By this mimicking, it acts as a COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR of ATPases, alkaline and acid phosphatases, and protein-phosphotyrosine phosphatases.
All the disease conditions described by Boericke and Clarke are actually due to this inhibitory actions of vanadites upon the various enzymes listed above, which lead to blocking of all biological pathways associated with PHOSPHATES.
Please understand, Vanadium potentized above 12c used in homeopathy will not contain even a single molecule or atom of Vanadium. It contains only MOLECULAR IMPRINTS of vanadium, and hence, will act just opposite to the actions of Molecular or crude forms of Vanadium. These Molecular imprints actually act by removing the molecular inhibitions caused in the various enzymes by Vanadium or any other pathogenic molecules having functional groups similar to vanadites or phosphates. Obviously, Vanadium 30 will not supply oxygen to the tissues as some homeopaths wrongly believe, but may be useful in deactivating harmful reactive oxygen species or ROS generated in the body during the disease processes.
Even though Boericke and Clarke talks about use of “Vanadium Vanadate 2-5 mg daily” for therapeutic purposes, as per advanced scientific knowledge, vanadium is not a safe substance for human consumption.
Vanadium excess can be toxic and detrimental to human health like any other metal. For instance, occupational inhalation exposure to vanadium was found to induce acute respiratory symptoms, DNA damage in blood cells of workers from a vanadium pentoxide factory, and altered neurobehavioral functions. In turn, environmental overexposures to vanadium oxides attached to fine particulate matter were associated with increased risk of respiratory symptoms in children, and a higher risk of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations of older people. ilRecently, urinary vanadium concentrations during pregnancy were positively associated with impaired fetal growth and preterm or early-term delivery.
Association between the high level of trace elements including vanadium in the drinking water and the increased thyroid cancer incidence was suggested. A suicidal death after ingestion of an undetermined amount of ammonium vanadate has also been reported. In addition, laboratory-based studies conducted in animal models or cell cultures found that vanadium exposure can induce a variety of toxic effects such as cardiovascular effects, vascular endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension, immune toxicity, damage to the spleen and thymus, neurotoxicity, hippocampal alterations and memory loss, developmental disturbances, increased embryolethality and skeletal defects, and pulmonary toxicity. It should be added that, besides the dose of vanadium and the route of vanadium exposure, many other factors such as the form of vanadium (inorganic versus organic forms) and interactions with other elements such as selenium or magnesium can also influence vanadium toxicity.
Along with the studies of the toxic effects of vanadium, many investigators have been focused on the examination of potential medical applications of this mineral. These include antidiabetic or insulin-mimetic actions, antiviral effects, and anticarcinogenic activity. Among these effects, the antidiabetic action of vanadium complexes with organic ligands has been very intensively studied, which entered into stage II clinical trials. However, due to kidney problems in some patients, this study as an antidiabetic agent could not progress to the next phase of research. Indeed, the risks associated with vanadium intoxication such as vanadium-induced reactive oxygen species generation, adverse effects on the immune system, and a risk of mutagenesis are listed among the arguments against the antidiabetic application of vanadium. Reviews of the results of past and recent human studies on vanadium in diabetes have concluded that the use of vanadium compounds in oral diabetes therapy is misplaced.
Homeopathic drug CORTISOL 30 contains Molecular imprints of the hormone cortisol. CORTISOL 30 is a great remedy for many ailments that are associated with Metabolic Syndrome.
Cortisol, also known as “stress hormone”, is a very important hormone produced mainly by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is produced in other tissues also in smaller quantities. It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also decreases bone formation.
In general, cortisol stimulates the synthesis of ‘new’ glucose from non-carbohydrate sources. This is known as gluconeogenesis, mainly in the liver, and also in the kidneys and small intestine under certain circumstances. The net effect of cortisol is an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, further complemented by a decrease in the sensitivity of peripheral tissue to insulin, thus preventing this tissue from taking the glucose from the blood. Moreover, cortisol has a permissive effect on the actions of hormones that increase glucose production, such as glucagon and adrenaline.
Cortisol also plays an important, but indirect, role in liver and muscle glycogenolysis, the breaking down of glycogen to glucose.
Elevated levels of cortisol, if prolonged, can lead to proteolysis or breakdown of proteins, and muscle wasting. The reason for proteolysis is to provide the relevant tissue with ‘building blocks’ for gluconeogenesis. The effects of cortisol on lipid metabolism are more complicated since lipogenesis is observed in patients with chronic, raised circulating cortisol levels, although an acute increase in circulating cortisol promotes lipolysis. The usual explanation to account for this apparent discrepancy is that the raised blood glucose concentration through the action of cortisol will stimulate insulin release. Insulin stimulates lipogenesis, so this is an indirect consequence of the raised cortisol concentration in the blood but it will only occur over a longer time scale.
Metabolic syndrome or MetS is a cluster of common abnormalities arising from persistent high levels of cortisol in the blood. This Syndrome includes hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and elevated triglyceride and blood pressure. The common characteristics of MetS and hypercortisolemic conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome suggest that the pathogenesis of MetS and central obesity might involve prolonged and excessive exposure to cortisol.
Metabolic Syndrome was originally described as “insulin resistance syndrome”. The components of Metabolic Syndrome are associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as vascular morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that about one fourth of the world’s adult population has Metabolic Syndrome.
Despite the increasing prevalence of MetS worldwide, there is still a lack of uniformly accepted diagnostic criteria, and there is controversy regarding the pathogenesis of MetS. Different organizations have provided their own definitions of MetS. MetS is diagnosed when three or more of the following parameters are present: waist circumference greater than 102 cm in men and greater than 88 cm in women, TG of at least 150 mg/dl (≥1.7 mmol/liter), HDL-C less than 40 mg/dl (<1.04 mmol/liter) in men and less than 50 mg/dl (<1.29 mmol/liter) in women, BP of at least 130/85 mm Hg, and fasting glucose of at least 110 mg/dl (≥6.1 mmol/liter).
It is unclear whether a single primary abnormality triggers a cascade of diverse events that lead to the manifestation of the components of MetS. Because the diagnostic features of MetS are shared by Cushing’s syndrome (CS), which results from endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism, it was proposed that cortisol contributes to the pathogenesis of both states although only mild hypercortisolism occurs in MetS in contrast with CS. It was also suggested that inhibiting cortisol action could provide a novel therapeutic approach for MetS. Indeed, preliminary data suggest that circulating cortisol concentrations are higher in patients with MetS compared with healthy subjects, both in basal conditions and during dynamic stimulation. This difference is more evident in patients with MetS and hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance. Furthermore, weight loss normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance. Despite the fact that cortisol levels are within the normal range, there is evidence of increased activity of cortisol in the periphery and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Differences between CS and MetS also need to be emphasized; in CS, once the tumor is removed, symptoms improve; in the MetS, weight loss reverses both hypercortisolism and phenotypic abnormalities.
Cortisol appears to play a role in adiposity in Metabolic Syndrome. Elevated serum uric acid levels are shared by MetS and CS Syndome. Increased exposure to cortisol contributes to increased fat accumulation in visceral deposits of fat. Increased cortisol serum overnight levels are also associated with insulin resistance.
Some studies showed elevated cortisol levels in situations such as work stress and unemployment. Others reported that chronic life stress results in subtle hyperactivity of HPA axis leading to intraabdominal adiposity and development of Metabolic Syndrome. Patients with Metabolic Syndrome appear to have higher urinary excretion of cortisol metabolites compared with healthy subjects. In vitro, cortisol appears to increase lipoprotein lipase or fat-storing enzyme levels in adipose tissue and particularly in visceral fat.
Experimental studies with cortisol inhibitors further support the role cortisol in the pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome, and might provide novel therapeutic approaches in patients with metabolic syndrome or obesity.
The components of Metabolic Syndrome are associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as vascular morbidity and mortality.
It was also suggested that inhibiting cortisol action could provide a novel therapeutic approach for Metabolic Syndrome. Indeed, preliminary data suggest that circulating cortisol concentrations are higher in patients with Metabolic Syndrome compared with healthy subjects, both in basal conditions and during dynamic stimulation. It was also proved that
reduction of body weight normalizes cortisol levels and improves insulin resistance.
Emerging data suggest that patients with MetS show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which leads to a state of “functional hypercortisolism.” The cause for this activation of the HPA axis remains uncertain but may be associated with chronic stress, which is associated with increased circulating cortisol levels and greater responsiveness of the HPA axis. Increased exposure to cortisol contributes to increased fat accumulation in visceral depots. Increased enzyme activity in adipose tissue and liver might contribute to the development of several features of the MetS.
Central abdominal obesity is one of the main components of the MetS. Cortisol appears to play a role in adiposity in MetS. Increased urinary cortisone/cortisol ratio in women with increased abdominal fat compared with those with peripheral fat distribution was observed by researchers, suggesting an increase in the peripheral metabolism of cortisol. Interestingly, cortisol clearance seems to be inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity, and this correlation is independent of body fat. It is also well documented that glucocorticoids promote the differentiation and proliferation of human adipocytes and that their receptors are more abundant in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue. They also redistribute adiposity from peripheral to central depots, increase the size and number of fat cells, and activate lipolysis and the release of free fatty acids into the circulation.
Increased cortisol levels are also associated with insulin resistance. Higher cortisol concentrations were related to a reduced insulin secretion.
Hypertension is one of the most distinguishing features of Metabolic Syndrome as well as hypercortisolism. Many studies reported an association between cortisol and systolic and diastolic BP levels. This correlation might be attributed to the effect of stress, which is associated with the activation of the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, patients with Metabolic Syndrome and hypertension appear to have higher urine levels of both cortisol and catecholamine metabolites than healthy individuals. A possible mechanism by which cortisol elevate BP seems to be an increased responsiveness to vasoconstrictors along with a decreased vasodilator production.
Obesity , a common finding in both CS and MetS, is also associated with hypertension. The possible underlying mechanisms include volume expansion, increased cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, increased sodium reabsorption, increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, high leptin levels and concurrent leptin resistance.
Patients with Metabolic Syndrome as well as hypercortisolism frequently have elevated blood glucose levels. In patients with MetS, serum cortisol levels are significantly associated with fasting glucose concentration. The relationship between fasting hyperglycemia and cortisol is due to the glucocorticoid effects on hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion.
Metabolic Syndrome is associated with endothelial dysfunction that significantly predisposes to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is also observed in patients with hypercortisolism. Hypercoagulability of blood is also present in MetS. Indeed, elevated fibrinogen and homocysteine concentrations have been observed in MetS patients compared with healthy controls. Hyperfibrinogenemia and homocysteinemia seem to be independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and venous thrombosis.
Elevated serum uric acid levels are seen both in Metabolic Syndrome and Hypercortisolism. High uric acid levels are regarded as a predictor of cardiac and overall mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases or stroke. Elevated uric acid is also associated with higher risk of stroke in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. It was demonstrated that statin atorvastatin therapy is associated with a reduction in uric acid levels, along with an increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate in CKD patients with MetS. This effect on renal function is perhaps due to an amelioration of endothelial function and renal blood flow. On the other hand, patients with CS may have higher SUA and urinary uric acid excretion than healthy subjects.
Adipose tissue is recognized as an important endocrine organ that secretes a variety of bioactive peptides, termed adipokines. These adipokines exert multiple effects and play a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, BP, and angiogenesis. The major components of this family of adipokines are adiponectin and leptin, which are mainly produced by adipose tissue. Both these proteins exert an insulin-sensitizing effect through fatty-acid oxidation and, in addition, adiponectin is associated with antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, and antiinflammatory properties. In obesity, insulin resistance has been linked to leptin resistance, elevated leptin, and low adiponectin levels, which are associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Resistin is expressed in abdominal fat and is also associated with increased risk of central obesity-related diabetes. However, resistin may not be an “adipokine” because in humans it is mainly produced by monocytes, and its link with central obesity is debated. Excess adiposity leads to dysregulation of adipokine production, which in turn promotes a state of low-level systemic chronic inflammation predisposing to atherosclerosis.
Since molecular imprints of cortisol contained in cortisol 30 can act as artificial binding pockets for cortisol, it can antidote the adverse biological effects of excess cortisol circulated in the body. As such, cortisol 30 will be a powerful ingredient of Homeopathic Prescriptions in the management of all complaints associated with Metabolic Syndrome.
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Two Important Scientific Studies That Validate the Possibility of Molecular Imprinting in Homeopathic Potentization
As per the scientific explanation of homeopathy proposed by MIT or Molecular Imprints Therapeutics, potentized medicines contain MOLECULAR IMPRINTS or hydrogen bonded supra-molecular clusters of water/ethyl alcohol carrying the conformational imprints of drug molecules, which act artificial binding sites for pathogenic molecules and thereby removing the pathological molecular inhibitions.
One of the important predictions put forward to be verified for proving MIT was that supramolecular structure of potentized drugs will be different from that of unpotentized water-alcohol mixture, even though both contain same chemical molecules, which should be proved by tools and techniques of scientific methods.
I think the two remarkable works discussed below, one by Dr Tanmoy Maity, and the other by by Louis Rey, provide crucial support as very strong scientific proofs for this important prediction, thereby validating the MIT explanation of scientific homeopathy.
First study is one done by Tanmoy Maity (Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004, India), D. Ghosh & C.R. Mahata (Department of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal, India), regarding effect of dielectric dispersion on potentised homeopathic medicines, which indicates a “rearrangement of vehicle molecules” in potentized drugs.
This report is available on
Second is one conducted by Louis Rey on thermo-luminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride, and published in December 2002, which is available in its full form at: http://www.janscholten.com/janscholten/Evidence_files/Rey.thermoluminescence.pdf E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (L. Rey).
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR RE-ARRANGEMENT OF VEHICLE MOLECULES DURING POTENTIATION :
This paper reports dielectric dispersion occurring in potentised homeopathic medicines subjected to variable frequency electric field using an instrumentation method developed by the authors. Oscillations occur in the direction of electric field, and are usually termed longitudinal/acoustic-mode vibrations.
The test material was lactose soaked with homeopathic medicine. Multiple resonance frequencies, forming a frequency-set, were observed repeatedly for each medicine.
The team reports experimental results for three potencies of Cuprum metallicum (Cuprum met) in the frequency range of 100 kHz–1 MHz. Each exhibits a set of resonance frequencies, which may be termed as its characteristic set. As the frequency-set of each medicine is different from those of others, each medicine may, therefore, be identified by its characteristic frequency-set. This suggests that potentised homeopathic medicines, which are chemically identical with the vehicle, differ from one another in the arrangement of vehicle molecules.
According to them, these “experiments show that potentised homeopathic medicines, which are chemically identical with the vehicle, differ from one another in the arrangement of vehicle molecules”.
“Difference in arrangement of vehicle molecules” strongly indicates the presence of “supra-molecular clusters of water and ethyl alcohol, into which the three-dimensional configuration of drug molecules are imprinted as nanocavities” as proposed by the hypothesis proposed by MIT.
The observation that “the resonance frequencies frequency-set of each medicine is different from those of others” strongly indicates clusters of water-ethyl alcohol molecules specifically rearranged in accordance with the shapes of constituent molecules of drug substance used for potentization.
Such a re-arrangement of vehicle molecules strongly indicates the process of ‘molecular imprinting’ happening during homeopathic potentization. Present work is a decisive step in the scientific understanding of homeopathy proposed by MIT.
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN POTENTIZING MEDIUM HAPPENING BY THE PROCESS OF POTENTIZATION:
As per the reported work, ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10−30g cm−3) have been irradiated by X- and gamma rays at 77 K, then progressively re-warmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermo-luminance has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.
This wonderful observation that high dilutions of salts very much above avogadro number retains the specific thermo-luminance patterns reminding of of original salts seems to be very crucial. This phenomenon could be well explained only in terms of supramolecular nanostructures of water carrying the imprints of exact ‘conformations’ of ‘individual’ molecules of salts, as explained by MIT concepts.
Thermo-luminance studies have been developed and utilized so far as a “tool to study the structure of solids, mainly ordered crystals”. In the present study, the researchers successfully utilized it in ultra-high aqueous dilutions, which demonstrates the short range ‘crystalline’ character of water as well as high dilution preparations.
Actually, the researchers took up this work to ‘challenge’ the ‘water memory’ theory, but proved it otherwise. They confess in their report: “we thought that it would be of interest to challenge the theory according which preexistent ‘structures’ in the original liquid, developed around some added chemicals, could survive a great number of successive dilutions when done under vigorous mechanical stirring”.
Another important point to be noted is that the researchers did not use ‘commercial samples’ as most ‘researches’ do, but prepared themselves 15c dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride under the guidance of boiron labs. This fact provides more scientific credence to this study.
The study “showed quite clearly that the initial addition of a solute (NaCl and LiCl) in the original D2O leaves a permanent effect even when, by successive dilutions made under strong vibration, all traces of solute have disappeared.” The results were reproduced in several repeated experiments, “beyond any ambiguity”.
Thermally stimulated luminance—often called thermo-luminance—is a well known phenomenon amongst the thermally stimulated processes (thermally stimulated conductivity—thermally stimulated electron emission—thermogravimetry—differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, etc.). Its theory and applications have been fully developed inter alia by McKeever, Chen and Visocekas and it proved to be a most interesting tool to study the structure of solids, mainly ordered crystals. To that end, the studied material is “activated” at low-temperature, usually by radiant energy (UV, X-rays, gamma rays, electron beams, or neutrons) which most generally creates electrons–holes pairs which become separately “trapped” at different energy levels. Then, when the irradiated material is warmed up, the heating serves as a trigger to release the initially accumulated energy and the trapped electrons and holes move and recombine. A characteristic glow is emitted most often under the shape of different successive peaks according to the depths of the initial traps. As a general rule this phenomenon is observed in ordered crystals though it can be equally seen in disordered materials such as glasses. In that mechanism, imperfections in the lattice play a major role and are considered to be the place where luminance centres appear. Thus, thermoluminance is a good tool to study these imperfections and understand how they appear in the crystal.
This is exactly along those lines that the researchers carried our first investigations, starting, this time, from liquids which were turned into stable solids by low-temperature cooling.
Working essentially with water—mainly deuterium oxide—they have shown that the thermoluminance glow of irradiated hexagonal ice consisted in two major peak areas—Peak 1 near 120 K and Peak 2 near 166 K having well-defined emission spectra the D2O samples giving a much higher signal than the H2O ones.
In both cases, un-irradiated samples gave no signals whatsoever. For both D2O and H2O it was shown that the relative intensity of the thermoluminance glow was a function of the irradiation dose and, that at least for Peak 2, it did show a maximum between 1 and 10 kGy .
As a first hypothesis on the nature of the emission itself it has been suggested by Teixeira that Peak 2 could be connected to the hydrogen-bond network within the ice which, in turn, could result from the structure of the original liquid sample, whilst Peak 1 looked to be closely related to the molecule. This strengthens the views on the involvement of hydrogen bonds in this mechanism.
To develop this concept further, the researchers did select to study the effect of lithium chloride on the thermoluminescence of irradiated D2O ice since this particular substance is known to suppress hydrogen bonds. The result, indeed, is spectacular and, at the relatively low concentration of 0:1M, Peak 2 is totally erased whereas the basic emission of Peak 1 remains almost unchanged.
At that point the researchers thought that it would be of interest to challenge the theory according which pre-existent “structures” in the original liquid, developed around some added chemicals, could survive a great number of successive dilutions when done under vigorous mechanical stirring.
To that end they prepared, courtesy of the BOIRON LABORATORIES, ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride by successive dilutions to the hundredths, all done under vigorous mechanical stirring (initially 1 g in 100 cm3, then 1 cm3 of this solution in 99 cm3 of pure D2O … and so on) until they reached— theoretically—at the 15th dilution, a “concentration” of10−30 g cm−3. A reference sample of D2O alone was also prepared according to this technique, still keeping vigorous agitation (150 strokes=7:5 s at each successive “dilution” step).
They did proceed, then, to the “activation” of these materials by irradiation according the following experimental protocol.
One cubic centimeter of each solution is placed in aluminium test cavities of 20 mm diameter and 2 mm depth and frozen to −20◦C on a cold metallic block. The frozen systems are kept 24 h at −20◦C to achieve stability into their crystallization patternand they are immersed into liquid nitrogen and kept at −196◦C for 24 h.
In a first set of experiments the frozen ice disks are irradiated at 77 K with 100 kV X-rays to achieve a dose of 0:4 kGy (30 min). Previous determinations were done to check that the disks having identical positions in the field did receive the same dose (dosimetry has been done using Harwell, FWT, and alanine dosimeters).
After irradiation, all the “activated” samples are transferred into a liquid nitrogen container and kept, there, for a week-time, to even out whatever small differences could exist between them.
Finally, all samples are placed in the thermoluminance equipment and their respective glow recorded—with both a photo-multiplier and a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph—in the course of rewarming (3=min) between 77 and 13 K, as has been done in our previous published experiments.
Much to their surprise, the experimental results do show—without any ambiguity— that for an X-ray dose of 0:4 kGy the thermoluminescence glows of the three systems were substantially different. These findings did prove to be reproducible in the course of many different identical experiments.
To compare the curves between them the researchers normalized the emitted light readings taking Peak 1 as the reference. In doing so, we obtain for Peak 2 the different curves presented which show quite clearly that the initial addition of a solute (NaCl and LiCl) in the original D2O leaves a permanent effect even when, by successive dilutions made under strong vibration, all traces of solute have disappeared. More remarkable were the fact that, by far, lithium chloride demonstrates a stronger hydrogen bond suppressing “ghost” effect which could be related to the larger size of the lithium ion.
A second set of experiments done with gamma rays (courtesy of CELESTIN Reactor, COGEMA, Marcoule), at a higher dose (19 kGy) did confirm these findings
It appears, therefore, that the structural state of a solution made in D2O can be modified by the addition of selected solutes like LiCl and NaCl. This modification remains even when the initial molecules have disappeared and the effect is the same at different irradiation doses (0.4 –19 kGy) and for different radiant sources (X-rays, gamma rays). As a working hypothesis, the researchers propose that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably thanks to the successive vigorous mechanical stirrings.
Researchers had no any idea of Molecular Imprinting. They proposes the following hypothesis for explaining their observation:
“As a working hypothesis, we propose that this phenomenon results from a marked structural change in the hydrogen bond network initiated at the onset by the presence of the dissolved ions and maintained in the course of the dilution process, probably thanks to the successive vigorous mechanical stirrings.”
See, this hypothesis comes very close to the concept of Molecular Imprinting!
If we fail to explain the observations of this monumental research in terms of Molecular Imprinting, there remains the danger that it will be hijacked by ‘energy medicine’ theoreticians, by interpreting in terms of ‘essence of drugs’, ‘information’, ‘vibrations’ and the like. Actually, Jan Scholten has already done such an exercise, by saying ‘information’ of drugs imprinted in water are the cause of thermoluminance observed by the researchers. Then he very cleverly fits this thermoluminance into his energy medicine frame work of ‘bioluminance’, vibrations, vital force, resonance and other pseudoscientific theories.
To be specific, precise and fitting to modern scientific knowledge system and its accepted paradigms, it is better to say ‘molecular imprints’ of original drug molecules are the cause of similarity of thermoluminance the researchers could observe. Such an explanation will clearly demonstrate that we are talking about the ‘complementary’ shape of drug molecules imprinted into nanostructures of water, which produce therapeutic effects by acting as ‘artificial binding sites’ for pathogenic molecules.
While introducing the concept of MIASMS, Hahnemann was actually trying to explain the role of residual effects of acute INFECTIOUS DISEASES in precipitating chronic disease conditions. His main focus was on infectious ITCH/LEPROSY, SYPHILIS and HPV-GONORRHOEA complex, which were most widespread around his place during his time.
Hahnemann, from his practical experience of applying ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’, came to the conclusion that complete cure is not possible using SIMILIMUM only, if such a similimum is selected using totality of currently existing symptoms only, without considering the MIASMS or residual effects of previous acute infectious diseases.
Even though Hahnemann could rightly observe the role of MIASMS or residual effects of infectious diseases in the causation as well as the curative process of chronic diseases, he could not explain the exact biological mechanism by which this phenomenon works. This failure was due to the primitive state scientific knowledge available during his period, which later led to various kinds unscientific and “dynamic” interpretations by his “disciples” and “followers” which continue till the present day.
Using the scientific knowledge already available now, I have been trying to explore the exact molecular mechanism by which residual effects of acute INFECTIOUS diseases contribute to the development of chronic disease conditions, which Hahnemann called MIASMS.
It is common knowledge that ANTIBODIES are generated in our body against infectious agents or proteins that are alien to our genetic codes. Even after infectious disease is over, these antibodies remain in our body for long periods, even for whole life in certain cases.
Since ANTIBODIES are native globulin PROTEINS that have undergone misfolding by interacting with alien proteins or infectious agents, they can themselves behave as aliens in the organism and produce pathological inhibitions by binding to various OFF-TARGET biological molecules. Such molecular inhibitions caused by ANTIBODIES are the real molecular level villains playing behind various chronic diseases such as AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, PROTEINOPATHIES, AMYLOID DISEASES AND PRION DISEASES.
Hahnemann called these chronic residual effects of ANTIBODIES as MIASMS.
See, how Hahnemann’s concept of CHRONIC DISEASES relating it with INFECTIOUS MIASMS, paves the way for a SCIENTIFIC understanding of a whole class of grave diseases, and developing of a whole new range of therapeutic agents and techniques to combat them.
Hahnemann’s observations of CHRONIC DISEASES, relating it with INFECTIOUS DISEASES, would have been a revolutionary event in medical history, had anybody- be it hahnemann himself, his followers or scientists- taken up the task of explaining it in scientific terms.
Had anybody asked the question how an infectious disease can cause life-long RESIDUAL EFFECTS in the organism even after the infection is over, everything would have been clear. It would have been obvious that infectious agents can produce life-long RESIDUAL EFFECTS in the form of CHRONIC DISEASES only through ANTIBODIES generated in the body against infectious agents.
Such a realization would have helped medical as well as scientific community to view ANTIBODIES from a different perspective- as CAUSATIVE AGENTS of diverse types of CHRONIC DISEASES- over and above their role as DEFENSE molecules.
It was hahnemann, who for the first time proposed that diverse types of CHRONIC DISEASES could be produced in the long run by INFECTIOUS agents, which he called MIASMS.
I have been trying to explain in scientific terms, how CHRONIC DISEASES could be produced by infectious agents, even after the infections are over. This led me into the realization that INFECTIOUS AGENTS can produce life-long chronic disease dispositions only through OFF-TARGET actions of ANTIBODIES generated in the body against them.
By Chandran Nambiar KC
Without acquiring a baseline knowledge of CHEMISTRY OF LIFE, you cannot follow the MIT explanation regarding biological mechanism of homeopathic cure.
By the term ‘living organism’, we indicate a highly organized complex material system with a specific quantity, quality, structure and functions of its own, which is capable of self-controlled growth and reproduction of its progeny, through an interaction involving constant exchange of matter and energy with its environment.
The phenomenon we call ‘life’ exists through a continuous chain of highly complex biochemical interactions which control each other known as METABOLIC PATHWAYS, which depend up on each other and are determined by each other.
A ‘living organism’ represents a much higher and advanced level of organized existence of the same elements of matter we meet in the inorganic world, different only in its structural organization and functional complexity. The universal phenomenon of material motion we find as part of primary existence of matter itself, attains the wonderful qualities of life, due to this complex structural organization.
In fact, phenomenon of ‘life’ was the result of a continuous evolutionary process of primary matter in this universe through millions of years, attaining different levels of organizational and functional forms. Primary forces, sub-atomic particles, elementary atoms, simple chemical molecules, complex inorganic molecules, carbon containing organic molecules, bio-molecules, complex bio-polymers, RNA-DNA-Protein structures, organelles, unicellular organisms, multi-cellular organisms, diverse species of plants and animals, and ultimately Homo Sapiens- these are the prominent milestones in the known evolutionary ladder on earth, panning through millions and millions of years. Human beings represent the highest form of this material evolutionary history on earth, as far as it is known to us.
Parallel to this biological evolution, we can perceive a systematic evolution and perfection of the nervous system also. Simple forms of conditioned reflexes that existed in primitive organisms, gradually evolved into nerve cells, neural networks and ultimately into a well organized nervous system in higher animals. In higher forms of life such as humans, this nervous system has attained such a structural and functional perfection that human brain and its diverse faculties have begun playing a decisive role even in the existence and development of that species and even life on earth itself. Of course, collective labor, language and social relations also played a major role in this evolutionary process.
A living organism can exist only through a continuous interaction and material exchange with its environment. There is an unceasing flow of matter and energy in both directions, between internal and external environments of the organism. Metabolism, or ‘life process’ is the term used to describe the sum total of this bidirectional flow. The moment this bi-directional flow of matter and energy ceases, the organism can no longer exist.
A living organism is distinguished from other non-living forms of matter by certain fundamental features such as: high level of structural organization, the ability to convert and utilize energy, continuous material exchange with environment, self regulation of chemical transformations, and, reproduction or transfer of hereditary information. A state of disease may ensue when any of the biochemical pathways governing these fundamental factors of life are disturbed. Obviously, it is impossible to make a scientific study of pathology and therapeutics without an understanding of these subjects.
Complex bio-molecules which participate in the diverse chemical processes of life are broadly classified into four major groups: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic Acids. These are polymers of simple chemical components or sub units, called monomers. The monomers of proteins are amino acids, and those of carbohydrates are monosaccharides. Lipids are polymers of fatty acids. The monomers of Nucleic acids are known as nulcleotides. These bio-molecules are considered to be the building blocks of life on earth, and are never seen in the non-living world. These bio-molecules, with their highly complex structure and organization, interact each other in the organism through hundreds of bio-chemic pathways, collectively called ‘vital processes’.
Scientific explanation of Homeopathy should be based on a proper understanding of the the complex dynamics of bio-molecular interactions involved in vital processes, especially protein biochemistry.
Understanding PROTEIN CHEMISTRY and PROTEIN DYNAMICS is an essential part of understanding LIFE, DISEASE and CURE:
Proteins are a class of highly complex nitrogen-containing bio-molecules, functioning as the primary carriers of all the biochemical processes underlying the phenomenon of life. There exist millions of protein molecules belonging to thousands of protein types in a living organism.
Each protein molecule is formed by the polymerization of monomers called amino acids, in different proportions and sequences. Each protein type has its own specific role in the biochemical interactions in an organism. Most of the amino acids necessary for the synthesis of proteins are themselves synthesized from their molecular precursors inside the body. A few types of amino acids cannot be synthesized inside the body, and have to be made available through food. These are called essential aminoacids.
There are specific protein molecules assigned for each biochemical process that take place in the body. Various proteins play different types of roles, such as biological catalysts or enzymes, receptors, transport molecules, hormones, antibodies etc. Some proteins function as specialized molecular switches, systematically switching on and off of specific biochemical pathways.
Proteins are synthesized from amino acids, in conformity with the neucleotide sequences of concerned genes, with the help of enzymes, which are themselves proteins.
‘Protein synthesis’ and ‘genetic expression’ are very important part of vital process. It may be said that genes are molecular moulds for synthesizing proteins of specific conformations. There are specific genes, bearing appropriate molecular codes of information necessary for synthesizing each type of protein molecule. Even the synthesis of these genes happens with the help of various enzymes, which are protein molecules. There is no any single bio-molecular process in the living organism, which does not require an active participation of a protein molecule of any kind.
The most important factor we have to understand while discussing proteins is the role of their three-dimensional spacial organization evolving from peculiar disulphide bonds and hydrogen bonds. Water plays a vital role in maintaining the three dimensional organization of proteins intact, thereby keeping them efficient to participate in the diverse biochemical processes.
Proteins exhibits different levels of molecular organization: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. It is this peculiar three dimensional structure that decides the specific biochemical role of a given protein molecule. More over, co-enzymes and co-factors such as metal ions and vitamins play an important role in keeping up this three-dimensional structure of protein molecules intact, thereby activating them for their specific functions. Buffering properties of body fluids also are decisive in maintaining the specific conformations of proteins and keeping them reactive.
Whenever any kind of error occurs in the particular three-dimensional structure of a given protein molecule, it obviously fails to interact with other biomolecules to accomplish the specific functions it is intended to play in the concerned biochemical processes. Such a failure leads to further harmful deviations in several biochemical processes in the organism, that require the participation of this particular protein, ultimately resulting in a cascading of multitude of molecular errors. This is the fundamental molecular mechanism of pathology, which we perceive as disease of some or other category.
These deviations in biochemical pathways are expressed as various groups of subjective and objective symptoms of disease. The organic system exhibits a certain degree of ability and flexibility to overcome or self repair such molecular deviations and preserve the state of homeostasis required to maintain life. Anyhow, if these deviations happen in any of the vitally decisive biochemical pathways, or, if these are irreversible, the bio-chemical processes ultimately stop and death happens.
Disease is a state of derangement in biochemical interactions so as to disrupt the normal pathways of vital processes of the organism
Derangement in normal biochemical interactions amounting to a state of disease may happen due to diverse reasons.
1. GENETIC FACTORS: Defects in genetic codes arising from heredity or acquired by mutations result in the absence of certain proteins (enzymes, receptors, antibodies etc) that are essential for normal biochemical interactions.defective genes may also synthesis faulty proteins with wrong conformation, which can act as endogenous pathogenic agents by binding to various biological targets.
2. EPIGENETIC FACTORS: Defects of enzymes involved in genetic expressions and post synthetic translations and modifications of protein molecules act as epigenetic factors of diseases.
3. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS: Nutritional deficiencies of essential building blocks and precursors of biological molecules, such as amino acids and other monomers, vitamins, co-factors, elements, metal ions, minerals etc may disrupt the normal biochemical interactions. Any shortage in the availability of various amino acids and their precursers may lead to non- production of essential proteins in the organism. In some cases, it may also result in the production of defective proteins.
4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Biochemical interactions happen only if an appropriate pH level and temperature is maintained in the body fluids. Any physical influence that may derange these physical parameters will act as pathogenic factors by deactivating protein molecules. Temperature, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiations, vibrations and various other physical influences can affect the normal biochemical processes. Physical influences actually act as pathogenic agents by producing derangement in protein conformations, which are deactivated or converted to pathogenic molecules.
5. EXOGENOUS MOLECULAR FACTORS: Chemical molecules released by infectious agents invading the organism, drugs, toxins, food articles, environmental pollutants alien proteins entering the body act as EXOGENOUS factors of disease by binding to various biological molecules such as enzymes and receptors and producing molecular inhibitions.
6. ENDOGENOUS MOLECULAR FACTORS: Antibodies, hormones, neuro-mediators, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, super-oxides, enzymes and various biological molecules of endogenous origin may cause molecular inhibitions of proteins such as enzymes and receptors, thereby acting as pathogenic agents.
It is obvious that almost all conditions of pathology we normally confront, including those resulting from genetic origin, are involved with some or other errors or absence of some protein molecules that are essential for concerned biochemical processes.
Moreover, most of such molecular errors other than of nutritional deficiencies or genetic origin, arise due to binding of some exogenous or endogenous foreign molecules or ions on the active, binding or allosteric sites of protein molecules, effecting changes in their three-dimensional conformations. A host of diseases originating from viral-bacterial infections, allergies, poisoning, drugs, food articles etc, belong to this category. Chronic diseases caused by antibodies, which are considered in homeopathy as miasmatic diseases and modern medicine as auto-immune diseases, also belong to this class. Diseases caused by emotional factors, hormones, neuro-mediators, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, super-oxides, enzymes and various biological molecules also include in this group.
KEY-LOCK MECHANISM: The most important factor we have to bear in mind when talking about kinetics of proteins in general, and enzymes in particular is their highly defined, peculiar specificity. Each type of protein molecules, or some times even some part of a single protein molecule, is designed in such a way that it can bind only with a specific class of molecules, and hence participate in a specific type of bio-chemic interaction only. This functional specificity is ensured through the peculiar three-dimensional configuration of the protein molecules, exhibited through their characteristic folding and spacial arrangement. Reactive chemical groups known as active sites, binding sites, and regulatory sites are distributed at specific locations on this three dimensional formations of protein molecules. These chemical groups can interact only with molecules and ions having appropriate spacial configurations that fits to their shape. This phenomenon can be compared with the relationship existing between a lock and its appropriate key. Just as a key with an exactly fitting three dimensional shape alone can enter the key hole of a lock and open it, molecules with exactly fitting three dimensional structure alone can establish contact and indulge in chemical activities with specific protein molecules. This key-lock relationship with substrates defines all biochemical interactions involving proteins, ensuring their optimum specificity. Obviously, any deviation in the three dimensional configuration of either lock or key makes their interaction impossible.
It has been already explained that the primary basis of any state of pathology is some deviations occurring in the biochemical processes at the molecular level. Endogenic or exogenic foreign molecules or ions having any configurational similarity to certain biochemical substrates can mimic as original substrates to attach themselves on the regulatory or the active sites of proteins, effecting changes in their native 3-D configuration, thereby making them unable to discharge their specific biochemical role. This situation is called a molecular inhibition, which leads to pathological molecular errors. It is comparable with the ability of objects having some similarity in shape with that of key, to enter the key hole of a lock and obstructing its function. As a result of this inhibition, the real substrates are prevented from interacting with the appropriate protein molecules, leading to a break in the normal biochemical channels. This type of molecular errors are called competitive inhibitions. It is in this way that many types of drugs, pesticides and poisons interfere in the biochemical processes, creating pathologic situations. Such substances are known as anti-melabolities.