Sankaran’s ‘Sensations-Kingdoms’ Method- Homeopathy Crippled By Lack Of Basic Scientific Awareness

Corner stone of ‘Sankaran Method’ is classifying drugs into ‘animal’, ‘plant’, and ‘mineral’ kingdoms. Then each kingdom is related with particular group of ‘vital sensations’. Plant remedies are used for individuals having ‘vital sensations’ belonging to the group of ‘sensitivity’, animal remedies are used for those having ‘viatal sensations’ belonging to the class of ‘survival instincts’, and mineral remedies for ‘structural consciousness’.

First, we have to analyze the concept of ‘remedy kingdoms’. Medicinal properties of any remedy is determined by the chemical structure and properties of the individual chemical molecules they contain. Because, it is individual drug molecules that act upon biological molecules, produce inhibitions, molecular pathology and associated symptoms. During potentization, it is the individual drug molecules that undergo molecular imprinting, and as such, it is the individual molecular imprints that act as therapeutic agents. In the absence of this molecular perspective of our medicinal substances, we fall prey to all sorts of unscientific theories that misguide us gravely.

Let us consider a particular remedy belonging to plant kingdom. The molecular composition as well as chemical and medicinal properties of the particular drug sample will be decided by various factors. It will contain kingdom-specific, family-specific, species-specific, variety specific, plant-specific and environmental-specific chemical molecules. Part of plant from which the drug substance is extracted is also a decisive factor. Nux vomica tinctures prepared from seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark or root of nux vomica plant will have different molecular composition and medicinal properties. Some molecules will be common to all samples from a particular plant. Certain other molecules will be common to all samples from a particular species. There will be some molecules common to family, as well as some common to plant kingdom as a whole.  Plants belonging to same family will have some common genes, which would produce some similar proteins and enzymes, that would lead to similar molecular processes and synthesis of similar molecules. There would be kingdom-specific, family specific, species specific, variety specific and individual specific and tissue specific chemicals in a plant drug.

As per this perspective, medicinal properties of a given drug substance of ‘plant kingdom’ will be decided by the collective properties of organ specific, plant specific, variety specific, species specific, family specific and kingdom specific chemical molecules contained in them. It is obvious that it is wrong to think that medicinal properties of a drug substance could be assumed by the ‘kingdom’ to which it belongs.

This is applicable to all drugs belonging to mineral as well as animal kingdoms.

When animal or plant substances are disintegrated or divided into individual molecules, they become similar to mineral drugs at molecular level. There are many drugs which could not be included in any particular kingdom. Petroleum is a mineral, but it is the product of disintegration of animal and vegetable matter under ocean beds. Acetic acid is a mineral, but it is prepared from vegetable products. How can we say lactic acid, prepared from milk is plant remedy or mineral remedy? All of us consider calc carb as mineral drug, but exactly it is the ‘middle layer of oyster shells’, and as such, is an animal drug. Kreasote is combination of phenols prepared from wood, and how can we say it is ‘plant’ or ‘mineral’?

At molecular level, the dividing line between ‘plant, animal and mineral’ kingdoms is irrelevant. It is the molecular structure and chemical properties that decide the medicinal properties. To be more specific, it is the functional groups or moieties that act as decisive factor. Classifying drugs on the basis of ‘kingdoms’ and assigning certain ‘mental level sensations’ to them is totally unscientific and illogical. It illustrates the pathetic level of scientific awareness that rules the propagators of ‘sankaran method’.

Rajan Sankaran’s ‘sensation’ method is based on the concepts of ‘deeper level vital sensations’ and corresponding ‘remedy kingdoms’. This method has nothing in common with classical homeopathy, where symptoms belonging to mentals, physical generals and particulars, with their qualifications such as causations, sensations, locations, modalities and concomitants decide the selection of similimum.

According to this theory, ‘structure’ is the basic sensation of ‘minerals’, ‘sensitivity’ is the basic sensation of ‘plants’ and ‘survival’ is the basic sensation of ‘animals’.

According to this methods, case taking involves an inquiry into ‘deeper levels of consciousness’, by prompting the patient to introspect from ‘symptoms’ into ‘deeper, deeper and still deeper’ levels so that his basic ‘vital sensation’ is explored. Then this ‘vital sensation’ is used to decide the ‘kingdom’ to which the patient belong. Remedies are selected from these ‘remedy kingdoms’.

The most dogmatic part of this theory is the relating of ‘vital sensation’ with ‘remedy kingdoms’. On what basis sankaran says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of ‘plants’? Any logical or scientific explanation for this relationship? If we go through materia medica of various drugs, we can see many ‘animal’ and ‘minerals drugs’ having sensitivity of high order. How can anybody claiming to be a homeopath ignore the whole drug provings and materia medica to declare that ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of ‘plants’ only?

When a homeopath says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation of plants, it means all plant remedies have produced such a characteristic sensation in healthy individuals during drug proving. To say ‘animal drugs’ have ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instinct’, a homeopath should be capable of showing examples from materia medica to justify that statement. Same with ‘vital sensations’ of mineral drugs. Our materia medica does not show that only ‘plant drugs’ produced ‘sensitivity’ in provers.  We can see many ‘animal’ and ‘mineral’ drugs with high order of ‘sensitivity’.  If not from materia medica, where from Dr Sankaran ‘invented’ that ‘vital sensation’ of ‘sensitivity’ is the basic characteristic of ‘plant kingdom’?

See the rubric ‘sensitive’ in ‘mind’ of kent repertory:

[Kent]Mind : SENSITIVE, oversensitive:- Acon., Aesc., Aeth., Alum., Am-c., Anac., Ang., Ant-c., Apis., Arg-n., Arn., Ars., Ars-i., Asaf., Asar., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bor., Bov., Bry., Calc., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cann-s., Canth., Carb-an., Carb-s., Carb-v., Cast., Caust., Cham., Chin., Chin-a., Chin-s., Cic., Cina., Clem., Cocc., Coff., Colch., Coloc., Con., Crot-h., Cupr., Daph., Dig., Dros., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Ferr-p., Fl-ac., Gels., Gran., Hep., Hyos., Ign., Iod., Kali-ar., Kali-c., Kali-i., Kali-n., Kali-p., Kali-s., Kreos., Lac-c., Lach., Laur., Lyc., Lyss., Mag-m., Med., Meph., Merc., Mez., Mosch., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nat-s., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Ph-ac., Phos., Plat., Plb., Psor., Puls., Ran-b., Sabad., Sabin., Samb., Sanic., Sars., Seneg., Sep., Sil., Spig., Stann., Staph., Sulph., Tab., Teucr., Ther., Thuj., Valer., Verat., Viol-t., Zinc.

In this list, 46 remedies belong to ‘mineral kingdom’: alumina, ammo carb, antim crud, arg nit, ars, ars iod, aur, baryta, borax, calc, calc phos, calc sulph, carb sulph, causticum, cupr, ferr, ferr ars, ferr ph, fl acid, hep, iod, kali group, mag mur, mercury, natrum group, nit acid, phos acid, phos, platinum, plumbum, sanicula, silicea, stannum, suplh, zinc

12 remedies are from ‘animal kingdom’: Apis, cantharis, carb an, crot h, lac can, lach, med, moschus, psorinum, sep, theri.

Remaining 56 remedies are of ‘plant kingdom’.

On what basis sankaran says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of plant kingdom? How can anybody say persons who are ‘sensitive’ at the deeper’ level need ‘plant remedies only? How can this theory be called homeopathy?

Similarly, if we examine various rubrics belonging to ‘survival’ instinct, or ‘structural’ sensations, we can see they are not limited to animal or mineral remedies only. Many ‘plant remedies’ have such symptoms.

According to Rajan Sankaran, FEAR is the indication of VITAL SENSATION of ‘survival instincts’ which need an ANIMAL KINGDOM drug. Based on which materia medica rajan sankaran says ‘vital sensation’ of ‘fear’ indicates only ‘animal kingdom remedy’?

Please see the MIND rubric FEAR in Kent Repertory:

[Kent]Mind : FEAR:- Absin., Acet-ac., Acon., Aeth., Agar., Agn., Aloe., Alum., Am-c., Anac., Ang., Ant-c., Ant-t., Arg-n., Ars., Ars-i., Asaf., Aur., Bapt., Bar-c., Bar-m., Bell., Bor., Bry., Bufo., Cact., Calad., Calc., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cann-i., Cann-s., Caps., Carb-an., Carb-s., Carb-v., Cast., Caust., Cham., Chin., Chin-a., Chlor., Cic., Cimic., Coca., Coc-c., Cocc., Coff., Coloc., Con., Croc., Crot-h., Cupr., Daph., Dig., Dros., Dulc., Echi., Elaps., Eupho., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Ferr-p., Form., Gels., Gent-c., Glon., Graph., Hell., Hep., Hydr-ac., Hyos., Hyper., Ign., Iod., Ip., Kali-ar., Kali-br., Kali-c., Kali-i., Kali-n., Kali-p., Kali-s., Lach., Lil-t., Lob., Lyc., Lyss., Mag-c., Mag-m., Manc., Meli., Merc., Merc-i-r., Mez., Mosch., Mur-ac., Murx., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nat-s., Nicc., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Onos., Op., Petr., Phos., Phyt., Pip-m., Plat., Psor., Puls., Ran-b., Raph., Rheum., Rhod., Rhus-t., Rhus-v., Ruta., Sec., Sep., Sil., Spig., Spong., Squil., Stann., Staph., Stram., Stront., Stry., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tab., Tarent., Thuj., Til., Valer., Verat., Zinc.

See. 75 drugs belong to PLANT KINGDOM! 54 are MINERAL drugs! Only 9 ANIMAL drugs! How Rajan Sankaran say only ANIMAL drugs are indicated for ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instincts’? By this approach, the practitioner who looks only ‘animal’ drugs is actually deprived of a large number of drugs belonging to other ‘kingdoms’, one of which may be the real similimum.

There may be many patients ‘sensitive at deeper levels’ who may require ‘animal’ or ‘mineral’ drugs if we select drugs using homeopathic method of totality of symptoms. Limiting all ‘sensitive’ patients to ‘plant kingdom’ remedies may be detrimental in such cases.

Rajan Sankaran says FEAR is the expression if ‘vital sensation of survival instincts’ which the ‘theme’ or quality of ‘animals’. As such, sankaran method uses only ‘animal remedies’ for people exhibiting ‘deep seated’ fear.

Homeopathic understanding of medicinal properties of drug substances are based on symptoms produced in healthy individuals during drug provings. Those symptoms are listed in our materia medica and repertories. We similimum by comparing symptoms of patients with symptoms of drugs, which is the basis of our therapeutic principle ‘similia similibus curentur’.

Please go to KENT REPERTORY> MIND > FEAR: Aconite, Argentum Nit, Aurum, Bell, Borax, Calc Phos, Calc, Carb sulph, Cicuta, Digitalis, Graphites, Ignatia, Kali Ars, Lyco, Lyssin, Nat Carb, Phos, Platina, Psor, Sepia and Stram are the drugs listed with THREE MARKS under FEAR.

As per homeopathic method of similimum being selected on the basis of our materia medica, these are the prominent drugs to be considered in patients with characeristic sensation of FEAR.

But, according to sankaran, FEAR indicates ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instincts’, which needs ‘animal remedies’ only. Only animal remeies found in above list are Lyssin, Psorinum and Sepia. Homeopaths practicing sankaran method will obviously ignore all other drugs in this list, since they are not ‘animal remedies’. Does this approach strengthen homeopaths, or debilitate them?

I want to know, from where sankaran got the idea that only ‘plant remedies’ have ‘fear’ and ‘survival instincts’? Which drug proving? Which materia medica? A person cannot claim to be homeopath by ignoring all available homeopathic literature on materia medica, and producing materia medica and symptoms from his fancies.

Some people claim, sankaran’s concepts are based on his ‘observations’. Did he conducted drug provings of all drugs and ‘observe’ their symptoms? Did he prove the symptoms given in our materia medica are not reliable? Which proving showed him sepia, lyssin and psorinum has more ‘fear’ than phos, bell, stram or arg nit?

Would Sankaran say a homeopath cannot cure a patient having ‘survival insticts’ and ‘fear’ using phosporous or stramonium, if they turn out to be similimum on the basis of totality of symptoms. Should we avoid phos, since it is not an ‘animal drug’?

Please see following rubrics:

[Kent]Mind : FIGHT, wants to:- Bell., Bov., Hipp., Hyos., Merc., Sec.

[Kent]Mind : QUARRELSOME:- Acon., Agar., Alum., Ambr., Am-c., Anac., Anan., Ant-t., Arn., Ars., Aster., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bor., Bov., Brom., Bry., Calc., Calc-s., Camph., Canth., Caps., Caust., Cench., Cham., Chel., Chin., Con., Cor-r., Croc., Crot-h., Cupr., Dig., Dulc., Elaps., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Fl-ac., Hipp., Hyos., Ign., Ip., Kali-ar., Kali-c., Kali-i., Lach., Lepi., Lyc., Lyss., Merc., Merl., Mez., Mosch., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-s., Nicc., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Olnd., Pall., Petr., Ph-ac., Phos., Plat., Plb., Psor., Ran-b., Rat., Rheum., Ruta., Seneg., Sep., Spong., Stann., Staph., Stram., Stront., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tarent., Thea., Thuj., Til., Verat., Verat-v., Viol-t., Zinc.

According to sankaran, ‘quarelling’ and ‘fighting’ indicates ‘survival instincts’, which require ‘animal remedies’.

Under the rubric “Mind : FIGHT, wants to”, not a single ‘animal remedy’ is seen, except hipp.

Under ‘quarrelsome’, ambra, asterias,cantharis, cenchris, corralium, crotalus, elaps, hipp, lach, lyssin, psor, sep, spong, and tarent are the animal remedies.

Would you say, all remedies other than these ‘animal remedies’ should be eliminated while selecting a similimum for this patient?

According to sankaran, JEALOUSY is a ‘vital sensation’ of ‘ANIMAL KINGDOM’.

See this rubric:

[Kent]Mind : JEALOUSY:- Anan., Apis., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cench., Coff., Gall-ac., Hyos., Ign., Lach., Nux-v., Op., Ph-ac., Puls., Raph., Staph., Stram.

LACHESIS and HYOS are 3 marks drugs for this symptom. Only APIS, CENCHRIS, and LACHESIS are ‘animal’ drugs’. Anan, Camph, Coff, Hyos, Ign, Nux, Opium, Puls, Raph, Staph and Stram are ‘plant remedies’. Calc P, Calc S, Gall ac and Phos ac are mineral drugs.

We will have to eliminate HYOS when searching a similimum for a person with jealousy as a prominent symptom, if we follow sankaran method!

Homeopathic materia medica or repertory does not support sankaran’s theory that persons with ‘vital sensation’ of ‘jealousy’ would require ‘animal drugs’ only.

Sankaran says LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE indicates a vital sensation of ‘structural consciousness’, which is a MINERAL quality. Only ‘mineral drugs’ have to be considered for patients exhibiting ‘vital sensation of LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE.

See this rubric in kent repertory:

[Kent]Mind : CONFIDENCE, want of self:- Agn., Alum., Anac., Anan., Ang., Arg-n., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bry., Calc., Canth., Carb-an., Carb-v., Caust., Chin., Chlor., Dros., Gels., Hyos., Ign., Iod., Kali-c., Kali-n., Kali-s., Lac-c., Lach., Lyc., Merc., Mur-ac., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Olnd., Op., Pall., Phos., Plb., Puls., Ran-b., Rhus-t., Ruta., Sil., Stram., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tab., Ther., Verb., Viol-t., Zinc.

Only ANACARDIUM is 3 marks drug for this symptom. It is a PLANT REMEDY!

24 drugs- Agnus, Anac, Anan, Ang, Bell, Bry, Carb v, China, Dros, Gels, Hyos, Ign, Lyc, Nux V, Oleand, Opium, Puls, Ran b, Rhus t, Ruta, Stram, Tab, Verb and Viol t are PLANT REMEDIES.

5 drugs- Canth, Carb an, Lac can, Lach and Ther are ANIMAL DRUGS.

23 drugs- Alum, Arg Nit, Aur, Bar c, Calc, Caust, Chlor, Iod, Kali c, Kali n, Kali s, Merc, Mur ac, Nat c, Nat m, Nit ac, Pall, Phos, Plumb, Sil, Sul ac, Sul and Zinc are MINERAL DRUGS.

Materia medica or repertories no way justify sankaran’s theory that LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE would require only MINERAL REMEDIES. How can a person claiming to be homeopath make a theory and method of practice totally ignoring our whole materia medica and drug proving?

Sankaran’s reputation, experience or vast followings should not prevent us from asking genuine questions. We need answers for these questions, since sankaran claims to be a homeopath.

Sankaran’s method will result in gravely disabled in incapacitated homeopathic practice, preventing homeopaths from utilizing the unlimited potentials of our materia medica.

Obviously, the basic dogma of ‘sensations-kingdom’ relationship on which ‘sankaran method’ is built up, lacks the support of logic or materia medica.

Anybody can make any theories. But it is wrong to say it is homeopathy.

Rajan Sankaran gives a case of ‘tumor in eye ball’ cured by ‘argentum nit’ as an example of successful employment of his ‘sensation method’:

“I had a case of a man with a tumor in his eyeball, and he described it thus; that this tumour caused a certain “imbalance” in his eyes. Then he described this imbalance as a sense of inco-ordination, and further, how co-ordination was the most important thing in his life; how everything needed to be co-ordinated. Going further along this line, he said it’s the kind of co-ordination that a pilot needs when piloting his plane, or a rocket scientist needs when he makes a rocket. It’s the kind of co-ordination that an actor needs when he is performing live on stage, and several such examples.”

“At some point, he described a situation where his mother-in-law did something behind his back, and when I asked him what he had felt about it, he replied that he felt very disappointed, and betrayed. Now, these emotions of disappointment and betrayal are present in his case, and one might be tempted to use rubrics like “ailments from disappointment, or betrayal”. But if you ask further, “Describe the disappointment”, then you bring out the true individuality of the person in the circumstance. When somebody does something behind your back, which is not expected, the feeling of disappointment is common, not individual. Hahnemann always emphasized the individualizing phenomena, the characteristic symptoms.”

“Here, when we look at disappointment, it’s not individual enough, not characteristic enough. Go further. When I asked him, “Describe the disappointment”, he said, “It’s as if somebody had punched me in my stomach.” This now gets more characteristic. Take it one step further. I asked him, “Describe the experience of being punched” and he said, “I feel completely suffocated.” “Describe suffocation.” And it opens out and you find that there is the suffocation sensation in many areas in his life, like when swimming, or in claustrophobic situations, etc. That suffocation sensation, along with the sense of importance of co-ordination and control, like a stage artist, or a plane pilot, gives us the remedy Argentum nitricum, which has the control, co-ordination as well as the suffocation. That remedy cured the tumour in his eye.”

“So the “ailments from disappointment” or “delusion that somebody had punched his stomach”, is a more superficial expression. The deeper expression is the tremendous sense of suffocation that he felt, not only in the situation with his mother-in-law, but in every area of his life. A sensation that is so individual, and so completely unconnected with the external reality that it becomes the most individualizing symptom of the person, both physical and mental. It is at the Sensation level.”


When we analyze, this case, we would realize that sankaran did not utilize his ‘kingdom approach’ in this case. He does not say ‘argentum nitricum’ was selected as a ‘mineral drug’, as he normally does. Instead, he says “suffocation sensation, along with the sense of importance of co-ordination and control, like a stage artist, or a plane pilot, gives us the remedy Argentum nitricum, which has the control, co-ordination as well as the suffocation. That remedy cured the tumour in his eye.

Rajan Sankaran, being a very experienced physician having mastered the materia medica and successfully treated thousands of cases in his practice, could rightly select ‘arg nit’ as the correct similimum from symptoms such as ‘general sensation of suffocation’, ‘sensation of incordination’, and of course, from other numerous symptoms and observations he would have collected during case taking but opted to give in his case report.

Can any less experienced follower of sanakaran, with lesser materia medica knowledge, ever select ‘arg nit’ as the similimum of this patient, on the basis of ‘suffocation’ and ‘incoordination’ only, and a knowledge that patient needs a ‘mineral drug’ as per sankaran’s theory? Please note, Sankaran does not mention ‘kingdom’ while explaining this case.

Any homeopath who knows how to take case, repertorize and decide a similimum using materia medica, could have very easily selected ‘arg nit’ in this case by classical method in a very simple way.

Since the patient is coming with ‘tumor in eye’, an ordinary homeopath would start case taking by collecting symptoms with ‘eye’ and ‘vision’, trying to collect all modalities, sensations and concomitants associated with ‘eye’ and ‘vision’.

The ‘incoordination’ in eyes sankaran talks about will have to be probed in detail, to know whether it is problems of accommodation(accommodation defective), dimness of vision, diplopia, moving vision, alternate vanishing of vision or anything like that. Remember, all these problems of vision could be seen in materia medica of ‘arg nit’ in high order. Observe whether there is any chemosis, echymosis, lachrymation, pain, swelling, or any other peculiar sensations in eyes, with their modalities. Sensation of fullness in eyes, strbismus, cold-heat modalities also have to be ascertained. Itching, discoloration, frequent wiping, and many such features could be observed.

After completing ‘particulars’, physician would inquire mentals and physical generals. What sankaran interprets as ‘suffocation’ would be described by the patient as aggravation in closed room, desire for open air, aggravation in crowded rooms, general physical anxiety, sensation of balls internally, intolerance of clothing, sensation of being constricted by a band around body, and such symptoms. See, most of these symptoms strongly indicate argentum nitricum.

Regarding his mentals, from what sankaran explained, we can understand there would be symptoms such as persistent anxiety, despair, feeling of betrayed, sadness, anticipations, confusion of mind, being repudiated by relatives, dwelling on past bad experiences, delusions of getting punched, forsaken feelings, mortification and many such symptoms, most of which obviously points to argentum nitricm.

For an experienced homeopath like sankaran, arg nit is the obvious prescription for this case without any special methods and techniques or even repertorization. Any homeopath who could collect these symptoms would reach argentum nit through simple repertorization. As for me, I would have reached arg nit by the time I complete my case taking.

Why should Rajan sankaran pretend to be finding similimum in this type of obvious cases through his ‘sensation-kingdom’ method, only to confuse youg homeopaths?

That is the game plan of all modern gurus and masters. They would prescribe correctly using their materia medica knowledge and, make results. Then they would pretend the made this miraculous results using their ‘special methods’ they are marketing! Innocent follower is betrayed, and his carrier doomed to be spoiled, by keeing on trying the ‘methods’ the guru taught them.

As part of my mission to evolve and promote scientific homeopathy, I will have to discuss and analyse various existing theories about homeopathy. I will have to point out things I think are not agreeing with modern scientific knowledge system. Such criticisms and discussions are part of work I am engaged in. It is nothing personal. I have no any personal agenda here. I analyse and expose each and every ideas, concepts and methods in homeopathy that hinder scientific transformation of homeopathy.

Earlier, once I took up discussing Dr Vijaykar’s theories, ‘cubs’ and ‘lions’ of that group threatened me for my life. They told me ‘you will have no place to run’. Next came the attacks from marketers of ‘hair transmissionis’. Promoters of ‘energy medicine’ theories also did the same. Homeopathic World Community removed all my articles from their pages, since they could not tolerate my exposures of ‘international masters’ who promote homeopathy as ‘energy medicine’ and practice homeopathy as part of their CAM ‘healing arts’. I had to relinquish my HWC membership on that issue.

Now, it is the turn of disciples of Rajan Sankaran and Jan Scholton. Once I just took up discussing ‘sensation method’, ‘kingdom method’ and ‘periodical table method’, a whole hornet’s nest is infuriated and out for me. I wanted to discuss their theories due to my conviction that scientific homeopathy cannot advance without exposing these highly influential but unscientific theories. My message box is daily full of messages warning me of ‘dire consequences’. Instead of discussing or explaining the points I raised, I am abused, threatened and asked to ‘stay away from our master’. I am accused of being jealous, arrogant, insane and working with hidden personal agendas. They diagnosed my problem as ‘severe skepticemia’!

I just don’t care. I will go on with my mission of evolving homeopathy into a full-fledged medical science. I know I will have to pay a price, perhaps with my life itself. But I am not bothered. Let the dogs bark, caravan will move on!

Without criticizing and exposing wrong ideas and wrong practices, we cannot evolve and promote right ideas and right practices in homeopathy.

I am asked to ‘read all books of sankaran, and apply it myself’ to confirm, before commenting on his theories. I agree that we have to study before commenting or criticizing anything. But, we need not ‘apply’ everything ourselves to ‘confirm’. If that were so, nobody will have the right to comment on homeopathy without practicing it. We cannot criticize allopathy without practicing it ourselves! To criticize astrology, I will have to practice astrology. To say robbery is wrong, I will have do robbery myself! To criticize corruption, I have to be corrupt? To comment on a theory, we have to ‘study’ it well, that is all.

I have commented on sankaran’s theories after studying it well. I need not practice it for that.

When anybody say only ‘animal drugs’ have to be used in people characterized by ‘vital level sensation of survival instincts’, I can comment on it on the basis of my knowledge of materia medica and drug proving. I need not ‘apply’ that method. I know many homeopathic drugs belonging to plant or mineral kingdoms having that charecteristics. I have applied those drugs in my homeopathic practice very successfully. Any homeopath, who has studied and applied materia medica knows that sankaran is wrong on this point.

Some friends have expressed their apprehension that criticizing wrong theories and practices happening in homeopathy in public will harm the good will and reputation of our community and our therapeutic system.

I do not subscribe to that view. All these ‘wrong things’ in homeopathy are done and promoted by their propagators in public, with out any concern about the harm they are doing, through articles, books, interviews and seminars all over the world, making homeopathy a topic of unending mockery before the scientific community. All these things are already known to general public better than homeopaths themselves.

These people have already done enough damage to homeopathy through their unscientific theories and nonsense practices. They supply arms and ammunition to skeptics to attack homeopathy. There is no meaning in covering up this dirt. Public dirt should be washed in public, to get the lost reputation and credibility of homeopathy back.

If homeopathic community continue let these people go like this, we cannot even dream about making homeopathy a scientific medical system, and get it recognized as such even in a far distant future.

In his Homeopathic Links interview, Vithoulkas says: “Sankaran alone has done more harm to homeopathy than all the enemies of homeopathy together.”

Andre Saine writes on his website: “Sankaran demonstrated several basic errors of methodology and reasoning in his example of how he ‘discovers’ a remedy”

How would the followers of Sankaran respond to these statements?

Collect all mentals, physical generals and particular symptoms of your patient, with all qualifications such as causations, sensations, locations, modalities and concomitants. Then grade the symptoms into uncommon, common, mental, physical general and particulars. Then repertorize. Compare the materia medica of drugs coming top in repertorization, and decide a similimum. That is the simple way of homeopathic practice- and the most successful way.

If a drug is similimum according to totality of symptoms, it does not matter whether that drug belongs to animal, mineral or plant kingdoms. It does not matter to which ‘sub kingdom’ or ‘family’ the drug belongs. Such a knowledge does not make any difference in your similimum.

Selecting similimum is most important in homeopathy. Similarity of symptoms is our guide in selecting similimum. All these talk about ‘kingdoms’, sub kingdoms, families and such things only contribute in making homeopathy complex, and confuse the young homeopaths. It may help in creating an aura around the teacher, which would attract people to seminars. That is not a silly thing, where money matters above homeopathy!

Nothing to Wonder Why Scientific Community Dismisses Homeopathy as ‘Quackery’! See The Real Culprits!

See the real face of international ‘scientific homeopathy’, and its ‘modern masters’! They write books, conduct courses, seminars and interviews to train new generation of homeopaths. They are ‘most revered’ teachers and gurus. They represent homeopathy in international platforms. Nothing to wonder scientific community dismisses homeopathy as ‘fake’, ‘superstitious beliefs’ and ‘quackery’! No wonder James Randy and his skeptic friends rocking!

DAVID LITTLE is a prominent face of international homeopathy, who founded
H.O.E. (Homoeopathic Online Education) selling a four year online course on homeopathy. David has been practicing Homoeopathy for the past 30 years.He claims to be providing “valuable knowledge of the true methods of Homoeopathy, so that it can be used in a safe and effective manner”

“David Little was born in the USA in 1948 and has been a student of Homœopathy since the early 1970s. His first teacher was the late, great Dr. Manning Strahl and he was a colleague of the late Dr. Harimohan Choudhury. He has studied Homoeopathy in the USA and India. He started HOE, Homeopathic Online Education in 1999”.

Leela D’Souza, who conducted an interview of DAVID LITTLE for Hpathy introduces him: “All of us who know you, admire your work for homeopathy and many have established a strong foundation in their homeopathic journey participating in your course and receiving guidance from you”.


“Through skillful reflex testing the homoeopath is able to communicate directly with the vital force by learning its language. We can ask the vital force what it wants through reading the reaction of the autonomic nervous reflexes to the stimuli caused by homoeopathic remedies. In this way we can know if a remedy is going to react before we give it! It can also help us to find the correct potency to use. This certainly is a great advantage. This can most easily be done by observing the pupil reflex, the pulse and respiration, palpating and percussing the chest and abdomen, and testing the galvanic skin response with a dielectric substance on the skin of the patient.”

“All of these effects are the reaction of the autonomic nervous system to the radiations of energy waves from the homoeopathic remedy. In fact many of these reflexes will react before the vial is actually brought into contact with the patient”.


“Once the is patient is relaxed and ready the operator shines the light into the person’s eyes. If one is using a shaded light it should be held no higher than the waist and suddenly turned upward so that the light shines into the patient’s eyes. If one is using a flashlight it should be held to the side and directed into the patient’s eyes from one to two feet away. The pupils will immediately contract and then after one or two seconds dilate slightly and come to rest. At this moment the assistant should come up behind the patient and with a quick movement bring the remedy close to the person’s body or lightly touch them. If the homoeopath is working alone they may bring the remedy very close or lightly touch the remedy to the hand of the patient while watching the pupils.”

“If the patient is sensitive to the remedy the pupils of the patient will dilate quite clearly and come to rest in a new position. In certain rare instances the pupils may contract first and then dilate. The remedy that causes the most dilation of the pupil of the pupil is the remedy to which the body is the most susceptible. After allowing the nervous system to settle down for a few minutes, retest the chosen remedy in various potencies. The potency that causes the largest, most stable dilation is the potency to which the body is most reactive. In this way we can use the vital force as a guide in helping to choose a suitable remedy in the proper potency”.


“While reading the pulse the remedy vial is brought near the subject’s back with a quick swing stopping a few inches away from the patient’s body and the changes in the pulse are recorded. The vial only needs to be in contact with the body for a few seconds but the effect may last for up to 60 seconds. The heart usually responds to the correct remedy with a sudden hesitation, sometimes for up to 1/2 a beat, followed by one loud beat of the heart, and a perceptively new rhythm and volume.”

“Sometimes the pulse will respond as soon as you pick up the remedy. These effects can be plainly distinguished by auscultation with a stethoscope and can be viewed on a fluoroscope. In cases where there are irregular beats the correct remedy seems to stabilize the pulse and make it more regular. If the heart is arrhythmic because of a serious pathological lesion there is still often a clear response.”

“The pulse can easily show the homoeopath which remedy the vital force wants in that moment. It will also help show you which potency is the most suitable. Autonomic reflex testing can make a great difference in any homoeopath’s practice, particularly when it is difficult to chose between a few well chosen remedies. It is also useful after several remedies have been used and the symptoms have become masked due to too many partial simillimums”.


“First of all, observe the rate, rhythm, depth, movement of the chest, and effort in breathing of the client. The normal respiratory rate for a resting adult is 14 to 20 breaths per minute. Infants can breathe up to 44 cycles per minute. After observing the respiration bring the remedy near and touch the patient as in the other testing methods and watch for a response. When a related remedy is brought near the patient will sometimes almost sigh, or take a deep breath, then a new respiratory rate will be established. Look for changes in the rhythm, depth and movement of the chest. Counting the respiration can be done at the same time that the pulse is assessed. These affects can be watched together after one has gained experience in the method. Breath sound changes can be ausculated with a stethoscope much in the same way as the heart sounds. Observation, tactile fremitus, palpation, and percussion also supply information about the state of health of the respiratory system and can be used to assess the actions of related remedies.”


“The percussion technique can easily be done by anyone who has experience in the art of percussion for diagnostic purposes although a person can be trained in this method especially for the purpose of testing remedies. In this technique the patient is to be seated facing the west in a chair in the same manner as the previous tests. The experimenter may sit in front of patient toward the left side so that they can percuss the upper and outer section of the person’s chest. They may also stand behind the subject so as to reach over and percuss the subject’s chest from behind. An assistant stands about four or five feet away with the vials of the homoeopathic remedies placed on a table or chair”.

“The operator then begins to percuss the upper outer area of the apex of the lungs in a steady rhythm where the percussion-note is between flatness and resonance. When the experimenter is ready the assistant picks up a remedy and steps three or four feet away from the rest of the vials and then takes about two seconds to lift the vial upward until they reach the full length of the arm. If the remedy has any relationship to the patient, the percussion tone will become dull once the assistant touches the vial containing the remedy. As the remedy is raised upward the percussion-note may change to a higher pitch or becomes resonant again. Only those remedies which maintain a dull sound no matter how high the vial is held above the body are to be considered for retesting by the other methods for further assessment.”

“The distance that the remedy “holds” the dull percussion-note is related to its ability to influence the constitution in question. Some of the most active remedies have maintained the reaction at a distances of 75 to 100 feet or more! This imponderable remedy energy passes through walls made of brick, stone, concrete, or plaster without any obstruction. Stearns and his team observed remedy reactions at distances up to 200 feet. The remedy that “holds” the dullness of the percussion-note at the greatest distance is the remedy that will have the greatest influence over the vital force. Although these techniques are not very practical in the clinic it is quite amazing as a demonstration of the sensitivity of the human aura to the energy of a related homoeopathic remedy.”


“The skin resistance test is another easy to read response of the autonomic nervous system to a correct remedy. It is best if a sitting patient faces west or a prone person lies with the head to the north. The abdomen of the patient should be bared, and if the weather is humid, dried well with a cloth. The operator should then stroke the abdomen with a dielectric rod, such as one made out of glass, rubber, or bakelite. A drinking glass or a 6 oz. remedy bottle works very well. The remedies to be tested should be placed close by and handled by an assistant or the tester. The operator lightly strokes the abdomen in an up and down direction t in order to get a feel of the skin tonus of the patient.

The assistant or operator now picks up the remedy to be tested and brings it close or in contact with the body while the stroking motion is continued. The operator continues to stroke the abdomen to see if they can observe a “clinging” or “sticky” sensation as the skin is stroked. The dielectric rod will appear to “stick” or feel slightly retarded because of the galvanic skin response. In order to observe the stick effect the rod should be held horizontal to the abdomen and stroked vertically. To start with a single area to the side of, or immediately below the navel should be stroked. All remedies that cause a stick reaction should then be retested by stroking the other areas of the abdomen to see which one causes the largest area of the abdomen to respond. The remedy that shows the largest pattern of reaction will be found to have a strong effect on both the pupil dilation and pulse reflexes. It has also been found that the areas along the spine are also good areas for the testing of the remedies.

The same technique may be used for testing the remedies on the spine as for the abdomen. Some individuals seem to react better on the back than the front. It is also useful in those men who have too much abdominal hair to get a good response. The remedy that shows the largest area of reaction along the spine is the most suitable. Those individuals who have experience in Osteopathic or Chiropractic methods may notice certain relationships between the reflexes that respond and the areas of the illness treated. This is a phenomenon where research will prove most interesting to those with knowledge of the field. The inside of the arm, especially over the elbow joint, is also another area that responds well to the skin reflex. This area is convenient in situations where it may be impractical to bare the trunk of the body.”


“Palpation is a method of assessing the state of health by means of examination with the hands. The different regions of the body are investigated for heat, cold, unusual growths, swellings, tightness, looseness, and pain by the hands of the examiner. Much of the information acquired during palpation can be used to test remedies much in the same manner as the other reflexes. For example, the tissue can be assessed for areas of tension, relaxation and pain before and after the remedies are brought in contact with the patient. The tight areas of the body become more relaxed and loose areas become more tight. Pain on contact is usually significantly reduced when the correct remedies are in contact with the human electromagnetic field or the body.”

” With proper biofeedback equipment the human operator can be removed from the testing altogether and the results analyzed by computers. This area of research is an aspect of modern science where homoeopaths can prove that their remedies have definite physiological results. These biofeedback systems can also be combined with the radionic methods to demonstrate the presence of subtle waves emanating from the human body as well as homoeopathic remedies. This work needs the assistance of those who are experienced in Homoeopathy if it is going to yield the best results. Dr. G. B. Stearns was such a man as he was one of the only Americans to use Boyd’s Emanometer and clinical reflex testing in conjunction with homoeopathy.”


The LM potency is first made from the 3c trituration (1:100x100x100). Next 1 grain of this trituration is placed into 500 drops to make the LM/0 solution (1 to 501 ratio). Then 1 drop is taken from the LM/0 solution and added to 100 drops of dilute and succussed 100 times. This makes the LM 0/1 potency, the first degree of the LM pharmacy (100x100x100x500x100x500 = LM 0/1). The C’s of the 5th Organon (1833) were made with 10 succussions by hand although many modern potencies are made with 10 to 40 or more succussions by machine.

When speaking of the amount of original medicinal substances in the LM 0/1 it is similar to the amount found in the 6c potency although its remedial powers are greatly expanded due to the larger dilution medium. A mere comparison of the amount of original substances found in the C and LM potency does not show the differences in their inner medicinal qualities. The LM pharmaceutical solution is then used to moisten 500 tiny poppy seed size pellets.

One pellet of the LM 0/1 is further diluted in a minimum of 3 & 1/2 oz to make the medicinal solution. After succussions 1, 2 or 3 teaspoons are taken from the medicinal solution and further diluted in a dilution glass of water. From this dilution glass 1, 2, 3 teaspoons are given to the patient as a dose. The final liquid dose has been diluted through two more stages than the dry dose. The final amount of original substance given to the patient is more diluted than the dry pill since it has been dissolved in the medicinal solution and stirred into a dilution glass. This final amount of original substance in the teaspoon of solution given to the patient has yet to be calculated in the equation.

This is the real face of international ‘scientific homeopathy’, and its ‘modern masters’! They write books, conduct courses, seminars and interviews to train new generation of homeopaths. They are ‘most revered’ teachers and gurus. They represent homeopathy in international platforms. Nothing to wonder scientific community dismiss homeopathy as ‘fake’, ‘superstitious beliefs’ and ‘quackery’! No wonder James Randy and his skeptic friends rocking!

Similarity Of ‘Functional Groups’ Of Drug Molecules And Pathogenic Molecules Determines ‘Similimum”

To understand the real science behind the phenomena of ‘similia similibus curentur’, ‘drug proving’ and ‘potntization’, we should study drug substances in terms of not only their ‘constituent molecules’, but in terms of ‘functional groups’ and ‘moieties’ of those drug molecules. A drug substance is composed of diverse types of drug molecules. A drug molecule interacts with ‘active groups’ of biological target molecules such as enzymes and receptors using their ‘functional groups’ or ‘moieties’. It is the ‘functional groups’ and ‘moieties’ on the individual drug molecules that decide to which biological molecules they can bind to and produce molecular inhibitions. Different drug molecules with different size and structures, but having same ‘functional group’ or ‘moiety’ can bind to same biological molecules and produce similar molecular errors and similar groups of symptoms. A drug molecule become similimum to a disease when the drug molecule and disease-producing molecule have same functional groups, so that they could bind to same biological targets producing same molecular errors and same symptom groups.

Drug molecules act upon the biological molecules in the organism by binding their ‘functional groups’ to the active groups on the complex biological molecules such as receptors and enzymes. These molecular interactions are determined by the affinity between functional groups or moieties of drug molecules and active sites of biological molecules. Here, the functional groups of drug molecules are called ‘ligands’, and the biological molecules are called ‘targets’. Ligand-target interaction is  determined by a peculiar ‘key-lock’ relationship due to complementary configurational affinities.

It is to be specifically noted that same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reactions regardless of the size or configuration of of the molecule it is a part of. However, its relative reactivity can be modified by nearby functional groups known as facilitating groups. That means, different types of drug molecules or pathogenic molecules having same functional groups and facilitating groups can bind to same biological molecules, and produce similar molecular inhibitions and symptoms. Homeopathic principle of ‘similimum’ is well explained by this understanding. If a drug molecule can produce symptoms similar to symptoms of a particular disease, it means that the drug molecules and disease-causing molecules have same functional groups on them, by which they bind to same biological molecules. Obviously, similarity of symptoms means similarity of functional groups of pathogenic molecules and drug molecules. To be similimum, the whole molecules need not be similar, but similarity of functional groups is enough.

Potentized drugs would contain the molecular imprints of drug molecules, along with molecular imprints of their functional groups. These molecular imprints will have specific configurational affinity towards any molecule having same functional groups, and can bind and deactivate them.

According to the scientific definition proposed by Dialectical Homeopathy, ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ means:

“If a drug substance in crude form is capable of producing certain groups of symptoms in a healthy human organism, that drug substance in potentized form can cure diseases having similar symptoms”.

Potentization is explained in terms of molecular imprinting. As per this concept, potentized drugs contains diverse types of molecular imprints representing diverse types of constituent molecules contained in the drug substances used for potentization.

In other words, “potentized drugs can cure diseases having symptoms similar to those produced by that drug in healthy organism if applied in crude forms”.

Homeopathy is based on the therapeutic principle of ‘similia similibus curentur’, which scientifically means “endogenous or exogenous pathogenic molecules that cause diseases by binding to the biological molecules can be entrapped and removed using molecular imprints of drug molecules which in molecular form can bind to the same biological molecules, utilizing the complementary configurational affinity between molecular imprints and pathogenic molecules”.

So far, we understood ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ as ‘similarity of symptoms produced by drugs as well as diseases’. According to modern scientific understanding, we can explain it as ‘similarity of molecular errors produced by drug molecules and pathogenic molecules’ in the organism.

To be more exact, that means ‘similarity of molecular configurations of pathogenic molecules and drug molecules’. Potentized drugs contains ‘molecular imprints’ of constituent molecules of drug used for potentization. ‘Molecular imprints’ are three-dimensional negatives of molecules, and hence they would have a peculiar affinity towards those molecules, due to their complementary configuration. ‘Molecular imprints’ would show this complementary affinity not only towards the molecules used for imprinting, but also towards all molecules that have configurations similar to those molecules. Homeopathy utilizes this phenomenon, and uses molecular imprints of drug molecules to bind and entrap pathogenic molecules having configurations similar to them. Similarity of configurations of drug molecules and pathogenic molecules are identified by evaluating the ‘similarity of symptoms’ they produce in organism during drug proving and disease. This realization is the the basis of scientific understanding of homeopathy I propose.

To be ‘similar’ does not mean pathological molecule and drug molecules should  be similar in their ‘whole’ molecular structure. To bind to same targets, similarity of ‘functional groups’ or even a ‘moeity’ is enough. If the adjacent groups that facilitate binding with targets are also same, similarity becomes more perfect. If a drug molecule could produce symptoms similar to a disease, that means the drug molecules contains some functional groups simialr to those of pathogenic molecules that caused the disease. By virtue of these similar functional groups, both pathogenic molecules and drug molecules could bind to same biological targets, producing similar molecular errors and symptoms in the organism.

Molecular imprints of similar functional groups will also be similar. As such, potentized forms of a drug substance can bind and deactivate the pathogenic molecules having similar functional groups. This is the real molecular mechanism of ‘similia similibus curentur’.

Except those substances of simple chemical formula belonging to mineral groups, most of the pathogenic agents as well as drug substances consist of complex organic molecules. In the study of chemical interactions involving these organic molecules, understanding the concept of ‘functional groups’ is very important.  ‘Functional groups’ are specific groups of atoms within large organic molecules that are responsible for their characteristic chemical reactions.  Different organic molecules having same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reactions regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.  However, its relative reactivity can be modified or influenced to an extent by nearby functional groups.

Even though the word moiety is often used synonymously to “functional group”, according to the IUPAC definition,a moiety is a part of a molecule that may include either whole functional groups or a parts of functional groups as substructures.

The atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. When the group of covalently bound atoms bears a net charge, the group is referred to more properly as a polyatomic ion or a complex ion. Any subgroup of atoms of a compound also may be called a radical, and if a covalent bond is broken homolytically, the resulting fragment radicals are referred as free radicals.

Organic reactions are facilitated and controlled by the functional groups of the reactants.

A ‘moeity’ represents discrete non-bonded components. Thus, Na2SO4 would contain 3 moieties (2 Na+ and one SO42-). A “chemical formula moiety” is defined as “formula with each discrete bonded residue or ion shown as a separate moiety”.

We should learn different types of ‘functional groups’ and ‘moieties’ of constituent molecules of our drug substances, as well as diverse types of pathogenic molecules. We have to study our materia medica from this viewpoint, comparing symptoms of different drug molecules having same functional moieties.  Then we can logically  explain the phenomenon of ‘drug relationships’. We can explain the similarity of drugs belonging to different groups such as ‘calcarea’, ‘merc’, ‘kali’, ‘acid’, ‘sulph’, ‘mur’ etc. Such an approach will make our understanding of homeopathy more scientific and accurate.

Learn ‘Functional Groups’ from Wikipedia:

The following is a list of common functional groups. In the formulas, the symbols R and R’ usually denote an attached hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon side chain of any length, but may sometimes refer to any group of atoms.

Functional Groups containing Hydrocarbons

Functional groups, called hydrocarbyls, that contain only carbon and hydrogen, but vary in the number and order of π bonds. Each one differs in type (and scope) of reactivity.

Chemical class



Structural Formula






















Benzene derivative






Toluene derivative





Benzyl bromide

There are also a large number of branched or ring alkanes that have specific names, e.g., tert-butyl, bornyl, cyclohexyl, etc.

Hydrocarbons may form charged structures: positively charged carbocations or negative carbanions. Carbocations are often named -um. Examples are tropylium and triphenylmethyl cations and the cyclopentadienyl anion.

Functional Groups containing halogens

Haloalkanes are a class of molecule that is defined by a carbon-halogen bond. This bond can be relatively weak (in the case of an iodoalkane) or quite stable (as in the case of a fluoroalkane). In general, with the exception of fluorinated compounds, haloalkanes readily undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions or elimination reactions. The substitution on the carbon, the acidity of an adjacent proton, the solvent conditions, etc. all can influence the outcome of the reactivity.

Chemical class



Structural Formula








alkyl halide

(Ethyl chloride)





alkyl fluoride

(Methyl fluoride)





alkyl chloride

(Methyl chloride)





alkyl bromide

(Methyl bromide)





alkyl iodide

(Methyl iodide)

Functional Groups containing oxygen

Compounds that contain C-O bonds each possess differing reactivity based upon the location and hybridization of the C-O bond, owing to the electron-withdrawing effect of sp hybridized oxygen (carbonyl groups) and the donating effects of sp2 hybridized oxygen (alcohol groups).

Chemical class



Structural Formula













-oyl- (-COR’)
oxo- (=O)


(Methyl ethyl ketone




formyl- (-COH)
oxo- (=O)



Acyl halide




-oyl halide

Acetyl chloride
(Ethanoyl chloride)


Carbonate ester



alkyl carbonate

(Di(trichloromethyl) carbonate)






Sodium acetate
(Sodium ethanoate)

Carboxylic acid




-oic acid

Acetic acid
(Ethanoic acid)





alkyl alkanoate

Ethyl butyrate
(Ethyl butanoate)






Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide





alkyl peroxide

Di-tert-butyl peroxide





alkyl ether

Diethyl ether




alkoxy -ol

-al alkylhemiacetal




alkoxy -ol

-one alkylhemiketal





-al dialkyl acetal

Ketal (orAcetal)

Ketal (orAcetal)



-one dialkyl ketal





Orthocarbonate ester

Orthocarbonate ester




Functional Groups containing nitrogen

Compounds that contain nitrogen in this category may contain C-O bonds, such as in the case of amides.

Chemical class



Structural Formula











Primary amine





Secondary amine





Tertiary amine





4° ammonium ion






Primary ketimine




Secondary ketimine




Primary aldimine




Secondary aldimine













alkyl azide

Phenyl azide (Azidobenzene)

Azo compound





Methyl orange
(p-dimethylamino-azobenzenesulfonic acid)





alkyl cyanate

Methyl cyanate




alkyl isocyanate

Methyl isocyanate




nitrooxy-, nitroxy-

alkyl nitrate

Amyl nitrate





alkyl cyanide

(Phenyl cyanide)




alkyl isocyanide

Methyl isocyanide





alkyl nitrite

Isoamyl nitrite

Nitro compound





Nitroso compound





Pyridine derivative








Functional Groups containing sulphur

Compounds that contain sulfur exhibit unique chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than oxygen, their lighter analogue on the periodic table. Substitutive nomenclature (marked as prefix in table) is preferred over functional class nomenclature (marked as suffix in table) for sulfides, disulfides, sulfoxides and sulfones.

Chemical class



Structural Formula













substituent sulfanyl-


(Methylsulfanyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfide (suffix)




substituent disulfanyl-


(Methyldisulfanyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl disulfide (suffix)






(Methanesulfinyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfoxide (suffix)






(Methanesulfonyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfone (suffix)

Sulfinic acid




sulfinic acid

2-Aminoethanesulfinic acid

Sulfonic acid




sulfonic acid

Benzenesulfonic acid





substituent thiocyanate

Phenyl thiocyanate




substituent isothiocyanate

Allyl isothiocyanate












Groups containing phosphorus

Compounds that contain phosphorus exhibit unique chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than nitrogen, their lighter analogues on the periodic table.

Chemical class



Structural Formula










Phosphonic acid




substituent phosphonic acid

Benzylphosphonic acid




O-phosphono- (phospho-)

substituent phosphate

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (suffix)

O-Phosphonocholine (prefix)





di(substituent) hydrogen phosphate
phosphoric acid di(substituentester


O‑[(2‑Guanidinoethoxy)hydroxyphosphoryl]‑l‑serine (prefix)

Vijaykar’s ‘Theories’ on ‘Embryonic Layers’ and ‘Hering Laws of Directions of Cure’

David Witko, in his book review published in ‘The Homoeopath’,The Society of Homoeopaths.2 Artizan Road,NorthamptonNN1 4HU,United Kingdom, on ‘Predictive Homeopathy Part One – Theory of Suppression’ by Dr Prafull Vijayakar, said as follows :

“Essentially, and in outline, he charts the development of the human embryo in seven stages, from the cells and mind to the neural plate, neuro-endocrine system, mesoderm, connective tissues, endoderm, and its eventual cornpletion at the ectoderm”

“All of the organs of the body derive from these seven layers of development. To illustrate, the GI tract is formed as part of the endoderm, whilst the kidneys were formed earlier in the mesoderm”

“Vijayakar reasons that as natural embryonic growth progresses from the inside to the outside (even our bones develop this way), disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside (in Hering-speak) to the inside.  From the ectoderm to the endoderm. From the endoderm to the mesoderm. Deeper and deeper. So if you know which parts of the body are associated with each level you can clearly see the progression of disease”.

This review of David Witko amply illustrates the essence of Vijaykar’s theory of ‘embryonic layers’ relating with hering’s law, on which his whole ‘methods’ and systems’ are built up on.

Which text book of embryology says about the development of human embryo starting from “cells and mind”? Is it vijaykar’s invention? Embryology never deals with ‘mind’, but only ‘cells’.

Obviously, vijaykar wanted to make a theory seemingly scientific utilizing some concepts borrowed from genetics, but same time he wanted to establish that ‘mind’ is primary in the development of embryo. Hence, he added the word ‘mind’ along with ‘cells’ while describing the initial stages of embryonic development.

According to his interpretation of ‘embryology’, development of human embryo ‘starts’ from ‘cells and mind’, then advances “to the neural plate, neuro-endocrine system, mesoderm, connective tissues, endoderm, and its eventual completion at the ectoderm”.

Read from Wikipedia on EMBRYONIC LAYERS:

“The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop:
the innermost layer, or endoderm, gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder; the middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system and skin”

‎”A germ layer, occasionally referred to as a germinal epithelium, is a group of cells, formed during animal embryogenesis. Germ layers are particularly pronounced in the vertebrates; however, all animals more complex than sponges (eumetazoans and agnotozoans) produce two or three primary tissue layers (sometimes called primary germ layers). Animals with radial symmetry, like cnidarians, produce two germ layers (the ectoderm and endoderm) making them diploblastic. Animals with bilateral symmetry produce a third layer between these two layers (appropriately called the mesoderm) making them triploblastic. Germ layers eventually give rise to all of an animal’s tissues and organs through the process of organogenesis”

‎”The endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm.

The endoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. It forms the epithelial lining of the whole of the digestive tube except part of the mouth and pharynx and the terminal part of the rectum (which are lined by involutions of the ectoderm). It also forms the lining cells of all the glands which open into the digestive tube, including those of the liver and pancreas; the epithelium of the auditory tube and tympanic cavity; the trachea, bronchi, and air cells of the lungs; the urinary bladder and part of the urethra; and the follicle lining of the thyroid gland and thymus.

The endoderm forms: the stomach, the colon, the liver, the pancreas, the urinary bladder, the lining of the urethra, the epithelial parts of trachea, the lungs, the pharynx, the thyroid, the parathyroid, and the intestines.”

‎”The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of triploblastic animals. During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm.

The formation of a mesoderm led to the development of a coelom. Organs formed inside a coelom can freely move, grow, and develop independently of the body wall while fluid cushions and protects them from shocks.
The mesoderm forms: skeletal muscle, the skeleton, the dermis of skin, connective tissue, the urogenital system, the heart, blood (lymph cells), the kidney, and the spleen.”

‎”The ectoderm is the start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers.

The ectoderm forms: the central nervous system, the lens of the eye, cranial and sensory, the ganglia and nerves, pigment cells, head connective tissues, the epidermis, hair, and mammary glands.

Because of its great importance, the neural crest is sometimes considered a fourth germ layer. It is, however, derived from the ectoderm”

“The “ectoderm” is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior layer. It emerges first and forms from the outer layer of germ cells. Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain), tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument). It also forms the lining of mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair and nails”.

”In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm (also known as surface ectoderm), the neural crest, and neural tube. The latter two are known as neuroectoderm.””

Please note this point: The fertilized ovum “develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop: the innermost layer, or endoderm, gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder; the middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system and skin”

It is obvious that brain and nervous system develops from ‘ectoderm’ layer. It is the ‘outermost’ layer of embryo, not ‘innermost’. The theory of vijaykar that ‘brain and mind’ belongs to innermost embryonic layer is pure nonsense. They develop from ‘outermost’ embryonic layer called ‘ectoderm’, from which organs such as skin and hair also develops.  His theory that embryonic development ‘starts’ with ‘mind’ and ‘ends’ with ‘ectoderm’ has nothing to do with embryology, except that he plays with some terms used in embryology.

David Witko says: “Vijayakar reasons that as natural embryonic growth progresses from the inside to the outside, disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside to the inside”.

This is the most fundamental ‘reasoning’ of vijaykar, which he utilizes to build a common ground with ‘hering laws regarding directions of cure’ on which his whole ‘theoretical system is built upon.

We already saw that the concept ‘direction of embryonic development’ on which his ‘reasoning’ is itself totally baseless. Embryonic development does not start from ‘inner’ organs of endoderm and ‘complete’ with ‘outer’ organs of ectoderm’ as vijaykar tries to establish.

Even if the direction of ‘embryonic development’ was from ‘inner layer to outer layer’, what is the logic behind his ‘reasoning’ that ‘disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside to the inside”?

Most funny thing regarding this ‘reasoning’ is that it goes against the fundamental concept of disease accepted by ‘classical homeopathy’ that ‘diseases originate in the level of vital force’. Vijaykar says ‘direction od disease is from ‘outermost layer’ to ‘innermost layer’. Should we understand that ‘vital force’ belongs to ‘outermost’ layer of organism according to the interpretation of Vijayakar? Both cannot be right by any way. Either vijaykar should say that diseases originate in ‘vital force’ which is the ‘innermost layer’, or he should say disease start in the ‘outermost’ layer, that is skin and hair.

Since vijaykar has gone totally wrong and self contradicting in his understanding of embryonic layers and ‘direction of embryonic development’, his explanation of ‘hering law’ based on his ‘reasoning’ is pure nonsense.

‘Curative processes happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes’- that is the sum total of Hering’s observations regarding ‘directions of cure’.

The four ‘laws’ now known as ‘herings laws’ are actually the working examples he used to demonstrate this fundamental observation.

It was the later ‘interpreters’ who actually converted these four ‘working’ examples into ‘fundamental laws’ of homeopathic cure. They understood and applied these ‘laws’ in a mechanical way. They taught homeopaths to consider ‘hering laws’ regarding ‘directions of cure’ as one of the ‘fundamental laws’ of homeopathy, similar to ‘similia similibus curentur’. They made homeopaths believe that drug effects that do not agree with these ‘laws’ cannot be considered ‘curative’, and are ‘suppressive’. There are some modern streams of homeopathic practice which rely more upon ‘hering laws’ than ‘similia similibu curentur’ in their methods of therapeutic applications.

Actually, Hahnemann did not seriously work upon those aspects of curative processes which we call ‘directions of cure’, or considered it a decisive factor in homeopathic therapeutics. He was more concerned about ‘misms’ in the management of ‘chronic diseases’, where as Hering did not consider ‘miasms’ at all.

Some modern ‘theoreticians’ have come with new theories by combining ‘hering laws’ and theory of miasms, also mixing up with terms of ‘genetics’ and ‘embryology’ which they propagate as the ‘only’ correct understanding of homeopathy

Following are the four working ‘examples’ hering used to demonstrate his observation that ‘Curative processes happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes’, and later considered as ‘Hering laws of direction of cure’:

In a genuine curative process,

  1. Symptoms should disappear in the reverse chronological order of their appearance in disease.
  2. Symptoms should travel from internal parts of body to external parts
  3. Symptoms should travel from more vital organs to less vital organs.
  4. Symptoms should travel from ‘upper’ parts of the body to ‘lower’ parts.

According to those who consider these as the ‘fundamental law of cure’, any drug effect that happen not in accordance with above laws are ‘suppressive’, and hence not ‘curative’.

‘Disease processes and curative processes always happen in reverse directions’ is the fundamental observation hering actually tried to establish regarding ‘directions of disease and cure’.

According to hering’s observation, natural disease processes always advances from lower parts of the body to upper parts, from less vital to more vital organs and from external to internal organs. More over, all these disease processes advance in a chronological order.

Logically, Hering’s observations only mean that “all genuine ‘curative processes’ should happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes”.

Over-extending and mechanical application of ‘herings laws’ without understanding their exact premises and scientific meaning may lead to grave errors regarding interpretation of curative processes and drug effects.

This phenomenon could be explained in the light of modern scientific understanding of ‘cascading of pathological molecular inhibitions’ and complex dynamics of ‘bio-molecular feed back mechanisms’.

To understand this explanation, one has to equip himself with at least a working knowledge regarding the concepts of modern biochemistry regarding the bio-molecular inhibitions involved in pathology and therapeutics.

Except those diseases which are purely due to errors in genetic substances, and those diseases which are due to genuine deficiency of building materials of biological molecules, all other diseases are considered to be caused by ‘molecular inhibitions’. Pathogenic molecules of endogenous or exogenous origin bind to some biological molecules in the organism, causing ‘molecular inhibitions’ which lead to pathological derangement in associated biochemical pathways. These pathogenic molecules may be of infectious, environmental, nutritional, metabolic, drug-induced, miasmatic or any other origin. Derangements in biochemical pathways are expressed through diverse groups of subjective and objective symptoms. This is the fundamental biochemistry of pathology.

Molecular inhibitions happening in a biological molecule due to the binding of a pathogenic molecule initiates a complex process of ‘cascading of molecular errors’ and ‘bio-feedback mechanisms’ in the organism. Errors happening in a particular biochemical pathway leads to errors in another pathway which is dependant on the first pathway for regular supply of metabolites, which further lead to errors in another pathway. This ‘cascading of molecular errors’ happens through successive stages, which is expressed through new subjective and objective symptoms. This ‘cascading’ is behind what we call ‘advancing of disease’ into new systems and organs, exhibiting ever new groups of associated symptoms. For an observer, this cascading appears in the form of ‘traveling of disease’ from one system into another. Along with these ‘cascading’ of molecular errors, there happens a series of activation and shutting down of complex ‘bio-molecular feedback’ mechanisms also. The phenomenon of ‘advancing of diseases’ should be studied in this scientific perspective of modern biochemistry.

When a molecular inhibition happens in some biological molecule ‘A’ due to binding of a pathogenic molecule ‘a’, it actually stops or decreases some essential molecular conversions that are essential part of a complex biochemical pathway P.  If ‘G’ is the normal ligand of ‘A’, and ‘g’ is the product of biochemical interaction involving ‘A’, the result of this molecular inhibition is that ‘G’ accumulates on one side, and ‘g’ is not available for the next stage of molecular processes. Accumulating ‘P’ may induce a feedback mechanism leading to reduction or stoppage its production itself, or may move to other parts of organism and bind to unwanted molecular targets, initiation a new stream of pathological derangement.

Obviously, ‘traveling’ of disease or ‘advancing’ of disease happens through cascading of molecular errors in various biochemical pathways. Some disease processes may ‘travel’ from ‘external’ to internal organs, some from ‘lower parts’ to upper parts, some from ‘less vital’ parts to ‘more vital’ parts. All these ‘traveling’ is basically decided by the involved biochemical pathways. It would be wrong to generalize these observations in such a way that ‘all diseases travel from exterior to interior, lower parts to higher parts,  and less vital to more vital parts’. It is also wrong to generalize in such a way that ‘curative process always travel from interior to exterior, above downwards, and from vital to less vital parts’. This is mechanical understanding and application of hering’s observations.

Actually, curative processes happens in a direction opposite to the direction of disease process. That depends upon the biochemical pathways involved and the exact dynamics of cascading of molecular inhibitions. Its dynamics is very complex, and should not be interpreted and applied in a mechanistic way. When ‘molecular inhibitions’ underlying the disease processes are systematically removed using molecular imprints, the curative process also would take place in the reverse direction of disease processes.

To sum up, Hering’s observations regarding a ‘directions of disease and cure’ is a valuable one, but it should be studied in the light of modern biochemistry.

Curative processes happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes”- that is the sum total of Hering’s observations regarding ‘directions of cure’.

Vijaykar totally failed to comprehend the biochemistry involved in homeopathic therapeutics, and hence could not interpret the ‘directions of disease and cure’ in relation with the interactions of biochemical pathways. In the absence of essential scientific knowledge, he only tried to make his theories appear ‘scientific’ by utilizing some terms from embryology and genetics.  Playing with scientific vocabulary, he was successful in marketing his theories well among the ‘science-starved’ sections of homeopathic community.

‘Miasms’, Or ‘Totality of Symptoms’? Which Decides Selection of ‘Similimum’? Let Us Listen What Master Says


“Now, as in a disease, from which no manifest exciting or maintaining cause (causa occasionalis) has to be removed, we can perceive nothing but the morbid symptoms, it must (regard being had to the possibility of a miasm, and attention paid to the accessory circumstances, § 5) be the symptoms alone by which the disease demands and points to the remedy suited to relieve it – and, moreover, the totality of these its symptoms, of this outwardly reflected picture of the internal essence of the disease, that is, of the affection of the vital force, must be the principal, or the sole means, whereby the disease can make known what remedy it requires – the only thing that can determine the choice of the most appropriate remedy – and thus, in a word, the totality of the symptoms must be the principal, indeed the only thing the physician has to take note of in every case of disease and to remove by means of his art, in order that it shall be cured and transformed into health.”

The first thing I noticed in this aphorism is that master begins with talking in terms of “disease” instead of our common perception of “diseased individual”. He asks to remove “manifest and exciting cause” of “diseases” before attempting a therapeutic intervention. More over, he says the “disease” demands and points to the remedy suited to relieve “it” through “the symptoms alone”. He defines “symptoms” as “outwardly reflected picture of the internal essence of the disease”. Through the statement “only through symptoms” “the disease can make known what remedy it requires”, Hahnemann asserts the primacy of concept of “disease. “In every case of disease”, “totality of the symptoms must be the principal, indeed the only thing the physician has to take note” in order that “it” shall be cured and transformed into health.”.

See, master is talking about “disease”, “symptoms of disease” and “curing of disease”. Not the “person”, “symptoms of the person” and “curing the person”.

Next point we have to notice in this aphorism is that master advises to remove “manifest exciting or maintaining cause” before attempting a therapeutic intervention. “Totality of symptoms” and “similimum” can be considered only after “removal of “manifest exciting or maintaining cause”. This is very important point to consider in day to day homeopathic practice. In the footnote, hahnemann further explains this point: “It is not necessary to say that every intelligent physician would first remove this where it exists; the indisposition thereupon generally ceases spontaneously. He will remove from the room strong-smelling flowers, which have a tendency to cause syncope and hysterical sufferings; extract from the cornea the foreign body that excites inflammation of the eye; loosen the over-tight bandage on a wounded limb that threatens to cause mortification, and apply a more suitable one; lay bare and put ligature on the wounded artery that produces fainting; endeavor to promote the expulsion by vomiting of belladonna berries etc., that may have been swallowed; extract foreign substances that may have got into the orifices of the body (the nose, gullet, ears, urethra, rectum, vagina); crush the vesical calculus; open the imperforate anus of the newborn infant, etc”.

Then, “regard being had to the possibility of a miasm, and attention paid to the accessory circumstances”. Remember, master does not at any point here ask us to make prescriptions on the basis of miasms. He only says, “regard being had to the possibility of a miasm”, while studying the “totality of symptoms”

But, Hahnemann asserts that “the totality of the symptoms must be the principal, indeed the only thing the physician has to take note of in every case of disease and to remove by means of his art, in order that it shall be cured and transformed into health.”. Beyond any doubt, “totality of the symptoms must be the principal, indeed the only thing” “physician has to take note of in every case of disease”, and on which the selection of similimum should be based. Master further explains the importance of “totality” in the footnote of this aphorism.

Please listen to this statement:

“the totality of these its symptoms, of this outwardly reflected picture of the internal essence of the disease, that is, of the affection of the vital force, must be the principal, or the sole means, whereby the disease can make known what remedy it requires – the only thing that can determine the choice of the most appropriate remedy”.

By defining “symptoms” as “outwardly reflected picture” of the “internal essence of disease”, Hahnemann makes it clear that “the internal essence of disease” is the real, and the “symptoms” are only a “reflected picture”. Further, the “internal essence” is “affection of the vital force”.

Our modern scientific understanding differs with hahnemann on this definition of “internal essence” of disease. According to existing scientific view, “internal essence” of disease is “molecular errors” in the “vital processes” which leads to pathological deviations in related biochemical pathways. “Symptoms”- subjective and objective, are the “outwardly reflected picture” of these “molecular errors”. The phenomena hahnemann called as “affections of vital force” arise from these material level ‘molecular errors”. By observing “totality of symptoms”, we are actually observing the “internal essence”, or the “pathological molecular errors”.

Chandran K C Discussing ‘Miasms’ With Dr. Avtar Singh Mavi And Others On Facebook

This is full text of conversations regarding ‘miasms’ on Facebook Group ‘Homeopathy For Total Cure group’ :

Chandran K C:-

I was pointing to the pathogenic role of antibodies. We already know a lot about the havoc antibodies create by their off-target actions up on biological molecules. Most of the chronic effects of infectious diseases are understood to be caused by the antibodies generated. And also those hundreds of serious auto immune diseases, where antibodies are the real pathogenic agents. Hahnemann defined miasms as ‘chronic disease dispositions’ created by ‘infectious diseases. Only way by which acute infectious diseases can cause life-long chronic disease dispositions are through the existence of antibodies. That is why I say ‘miasms’ are ‘chronic disease dispositions’ caused by ‘antibodies’ formed against infectious diseases. The belief that antibodies have only a ‘protective’ role is not right. For example, the chronic crippling pains remaining life long after chikunguniya is caused by antibodies. Can we say antibodies have only protective role here? We know various chronic diseases dispositions caused by vaccinations, which we call vaccinosis, which are actually pathogenic actions of antibodies. I have also pointed earlier to streptococcus antibodies causing cardiac problems and kidney problems. There are already studies regarding the role of antibodies in causing diabetes. Still would anybody say antibodies have “only protective role”?

Now coming to the question “how antibodies can they produce diseases”. Exactly, antibodies are globulin proteins subjected to molecular imprinting by bacterial/viral toxins, which are called antigens. The antibody has a unique part known as “paratope” (a structure analogous to a lock) on it, that is specific for one particular “epitope” (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. These “paratopes” of antibodies are the result of molecular imprinting. Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). Apart from that, these antibodies can bind to native biological molecules having structural groups similar in configuration to the “epitope” of its antigens. This can be compared to the damaging of a lock by inserting a wrong key with some similarity to original key. Such bindings cause molecular errors, which cause various pathological conditions. This is the real molecular mechanism by which antibodies act as “disease causing agents”. You can learn this phenomenon better if you update your immunology and biochemistry. I am saying pure scientific facts, not my inventions.

Chandran  K C:-

Fundamental therapeutic law of homeopathy is “Similia Similibu Curentur”, and “totality of symptoms” presented by the patient is the most reliable guide in selecting most appropriate similimum. When following so called ‘miasmatic analysis’, ‘flow charts’ ‘genetic interpretations’, ’embriyonic layers’ and such other ‘pseudo-scientific and somewhat ambiguous ‘principles and methods’ propagated by different people, never forget SIMILIA SIMILIBUS CURENTUR. Remember, that is real homeopathy!

Avtar Singh Mavi:-

Firmness of a theory can only be backed up by the results which can be obtained by the use of that theory. Similia Siilibus Currentur was theory but during Hahnemann or after him whoever used it properly came to know that it gave good results.. Adding big names of physics, chemistry does not prove that a theory is scientific, it has to give results in cases of multiple sclerosis, demyelinating diseases, genetic mutations, cancers, AIDS and other autoimmune disorders- that was why Hahnemann discovered homoeopathy. Embryonic layers is what Herings law says, if u can understand the relation between its postulates and embryology. That is scientific. Gentic interpretation is what hahnemann have told us to do of a patient- read aphorism 5 and 81- where he have clearly told about the genetics of a patient and how it acts in creating disease. Thats scientific. Miasmatic analysis, which hahnemann has described as keystone in curing incurable cases and without which, he said, homoeopathy wont work (refer Chronic Diseases). If u want to follow Hahnemann’s Theories and Laws then follow all or follow none…..and sorry Dr. Chandran but the above said “unscientific” or ‘pseudo-scientific’ theories are only the scientific one, if you can 1st study embroyology, physiology, pathology(which are scientific) thoroughly and apply it the the thoeries of Dr. Hahnemann. and above all application of all these theories are giving wonderful results in above mentioned cases, not only by one or two persons but by hundreds…..that itself shows scientificness of these theories . That is Real and Right Homoeopathy!

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi: Sir, everybody would claim that their “theories are only the scientific one”. When you claim “application of all these theories are giving wonderful results”, kindly do not forget that all homeopaths who genuinely follo…w “similia similibus curentur” are also getting ‘wonderful results’. When you say only your method is “Real and Right Homoeopathy”, do you mean all those homeopaths who do not follow the “principles and methods” propagated by you are not practicing “Real and Right Homoeopathy”? Sorry sir, I think it is a far extended claim.

DrPravin Dhole:

Dr chandran sir : what is the importance of six modification in totality of symptoms ,? why the character of pain changes? what is impotance of location? why the extension occurs ? why the modalities forms? why the concommitants present ?

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi: Sir, since you kindly asked me to “read aphorism 5 and 81- where he have clearly told about the genetics of a patient and how it acts in creating disease’ I think it would not be inappropriate to quote those parts of ORGANON here. I would like to know how could you relate these statements of the master with modern GENETICS? Where did he “clearly told about the genetics”?

Organon : Aphorism 5: “Useful to the physician in assisting him to cure are the particulars of the most probable exciting cause of the acute disease, as also the most significant points in the whole history of the chronic disease, to enable him to discover its fundamental cause, which is generally due to a chronic miasm. In these investigations, the ascertainable physical constitution of the patient (especially when the disease is chronic), his moral and intellectual character, his occupation, mode of living and habits, his social and domestic relations, his age, sexual function, etc., are to be taken into consideration.”

Aphorism 81:”The fact that this extremely ancient infecting agent has gradually passed, in some hundreds of generations, through many millions of human organisms and has thus attained an incredible development, renders it in some measure conceivable how it can now display such innumerable morbid forms in the great family of mankind, particularly when we consider what a number of circumstances contribute to the production of these great varieties of chronic diseases (secondary symptoms of psora), besides the indescribable diversity of men in respect of their congenital corporeal constitutions, so that it is no wonder if such a variety of injurious agencies, acting from within and from without and sometimes continually, on such a variety of organisms permeated with the psoric miasm, should produce an innumerable variety of defects, injuries, derangements and sufferings, which have hitherto been treated of in the old pathological works, under a number of special names, as diseases of an independent character”See More

DrPravin Dhole:

throbbing pain never changing in dull acheing pain without presence of syphilis , throbbing frontal headache never extend to occipute without presence of tubercular bridge , syphilis never agg in morning, vomiting with bilious fluid it presence bilious temprament with latent psora

Chandran K C ‎:

@Avtar Singh Mavi: Sorry Sir, either you did not understand MODERN GENETICS, or you failed to comprehend what Hahnemann exactly said in the quoted aphorisms of ORGANON. Or, may be your are willfully misinterpreting genetics and organon due to some motives unknown to me.

DrPravin Dhole:

miasmatic analyisis never be a so called, it is scientific method ,

Chandran K C ‎:

@DrPravin Dhole : Sir do not all these factors include in our concept of “totality of symptoms”?

Chandran K C:

‎@DrPravin Dhole: Sir, do you think ‘misms’ are outside the purview of ‘totality of symptoms’. In my opinion, a similimum selected on the basis of ‘similarity of symtoms’ would cover everything including ‘miasms’

Chandran  K C ‎:

@DrPravin Dhole: Sir, I am not questioning the validity of “miasmatic analyisis”. I was trying to understand myself how this “miasmatic analyisis” could be related with ‘similia similibus curentur’. If you arrive at a prescription through ‘miasmatic analysis’, what will happen if that drug is not a similimum according to ‘similarity of symptoms’

DrPravin Dhole:

smymptoms similarity mean what? simply we cant match symp of patient to symp of drug only , individulization , totality of symp, chronic diseases classification , principle of chronic diseases, evaluation of miasm, confirmation of diathesis… , confirmation of constitution with symp, confirmation diathesis , confirmation of tempament , confirmation of inheritable tendencies and many other factor includes in symp similarities

 DrPravin Dhole:

how we will conclues these factors in case and where?

Chandran  K C ‎:

@DrPravin Dhole : I AGREE, SIR. All factors are included in ‘similarity of symptoms’. And only that is homeopathy.

Chandran  K C:

SIMILARITY OF SYMPTOMS means matching the ‘symptomatology’ of the drug with the ‘subjective and objective symptoms’ expressed by the patient. NOTHING LESS, NOTHING MORE.

Avtar Singh Mavi:

Before reading this I’ll just ask u for one thing. Be away from all prejudices. In aphorism 5, Dr Hahnemann asks of the physician to take into consideration the physical constitution, his moral and intellectual char…acter, his habits and more which represents the Genetic Coding of the patient, this is all what the patient was born with. IN the Aphorism 81, Dr. Hahnemann has referred to an extremely ancient infecting agent which has passed hundreds of generations in millions of human beings ad is the cause of innumerable morbid diseases— have u ever thought of what Dr Hahnemann was referring to through this. It was Gene doctor because gene is the only thing which has passed through hundreds of generation in millions of human being and CAUSE of innumerable diseases as now the genetic scientists are saying all over world. DR. Hahnemann himself was a great scientist and nothing of his saying is away from science……..I think now it will be helpful for u to understand Dr. Hahnemann because even the newly admitted homoeopathic students of 1st year are understanding these things…. If u dont understand even now then u might b having some personal motives!!

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : “In aphorism 5, Dr Hahnemann asks of the physician to take into consideration the physical constitution, his moral and intellectual character, his habits and more”. Hahnemann said nothing about “genetic coding”. He knew nothing about ‘genetic coding’ at that time. It is we, who try to interpret “physical constitution, his moral and intellectual character, his habits and more” in terms of genetics and genetic coding. We should not put our words and interpretations into hahnemann’s mouth, hoping to prove that he new ‘every science’. That is impossible, sir.

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : “IN the Aphorism 81, Dr. Hahnemann has referred to an extremely ancient infecting agent which has passed hundreds of generations in millions of human beings ad is the cause of innumerable morbid diseases”. It is OUR INTERPRETATION that Dr Hahnemann was referring to GENES through this. He cannot “refer” about genes, since it was impossible for him to know anything about ‘genes’ at that time. He was referring to what he actually knew. We now interpret it on the basis of modern genetics.

Chandran  K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : Sir, the term “infecting agent” used by hahnemann by itself shows he has no any idea about “genes”. No body with minimum understanding of genetics would consider native “genes” of an organism as “infectious agents” for itself. The term “infectious agent” means some thing that “infects” the organism from external environment. That cannot be part of “genetic substance” of an organism.

Chandran  K C:

The term “infectious agent” Hahnemann used to describe “psora” and other “miasms” clearly shows that he did not consider “miasms” as part of genetic substance, and as such, it cannot be inherited through genes. By saying “inherited through generations” hahneman only meant that these ‘miasms’ or ‘infectious agents’ were transferred from generation to generation as “infections”, not as “genes”. HIV infection can be transferred from mother to infant, but it is not a ‘genetic inheritance’. It is only “infection”. That way, hahnemann only meant that the “infectious agents” of “psora” and other “venereal” miasms were transferred through generations of humanity. That has nothing to do with genetics. “INFECTIOUS AGENTS” cannot be inherited through GENES.

 Avtar Singh Mavi:

Doctor now I think that u need to read Genetics, once again. HIV virus is not being transferred from hundreds of generations in millions of human being nor any pathogen can be transferred which is only cause of every disease and what is psora sycosis and syphilis in ‘scientific’ language and how it is transferred in generations…. pls explain

Chandran  K C:


Avtar Singh Mavi:

Doctor if somebody calls u with the name Shekhar are ur characters going to change or will u be not the same person by only changing the name…….what if Dr. Hahnemann has not given the NAME Gene to that thing, cant it be gene which he has observed

Avtar Singh Mavi:

Lastly the thing is Doctor that we can wake a person who is sleeping but we cant wake a person who is pretending to sleep

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : Sir, Let us leave HIV as it is a new comer. LEPROSY was “transferred through generations” ranging for centuries as ‘infectious agents’. But nobody would dare to say that it was inherited through GENES. Same way, Hahnema…nn only meant that ITCH causing “infectious agents” were transferred through “hundreds of generations in millions of human beings”. TUBERCULOSIS is existing here through generations, transferred in the form of “infectious agents”. Only because hahnemann said that “infectious agents” or “miasms” were transferred through “hundreds of generations in millions of human beings”, why should we reach the conclusion that he was talking about GENES and GENETICS”? He was only talking about transferring of “infectious agents” or “miasms” through generations.

Chandran K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : Sir, you have asked: “what is psora sycosis and syphilis in ‘scientific’ language and how it is transferred in generations…. pls explain”. SHALL I TRY TO EXPLAIN MY CONCEPTS ON THIS SUBJECT?

Chandran  K C:

‎@Avtar Singh Mavi : Sir, I have already explained my concepts regarding miasms in this doc. Would you please go to it:!/home.php?sk=group_126911884035337&view=doc&id=163731713686687

DrPravin Dhole:

OUR fundamental of low , is to satisfy the level of suceptibility, infection or specific bacteria or any virus is not inheritable , but suceptibility to the specific agent is an inheritable, constitutional miasmatic suceptibilies are inheritable , which desing the classification of diseases

Chandran  K C:

DrPravin Dhole : But sir, in aphorism 81 hahnemann says about “miasms’ as “infectious agents”. Let me quote: “the fact that this extremely ancient infecting agent has gradually passed, in some hundreds of generations, through many millions …of human organisms and has thus attained an incredible development, renders it in some measure conceivable how it can now display such innumerable morbid forms in the great family of mankind”. Is there any clue to show that he was talking about “constitutional miasmatic suceptibilies”? He was talking about “infectious agents”.. He was obviously not talking about “genetic inheritance”, but “transferring of infectious agents through generations”.

Chandran  K C:


Sayan Bhattacharya:

Dear doctors…i hav one question…

Have u seen any old skin disease reappear, during ur treatment of any chronic disease, like bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis??

If ur answer is yes…then U should not have any doubt about the efficacy of miasmatic theory.

Chandran K C:

‎@Sayan Bhattacharya : Sir, it is not a question of “doubt about the efficacy of miasmatic theory”. We are trying to understand homeopathy better.

Chandran K C:

‎@Sayan Bhattacharya : As for me, I have no any doubt regarding the existence of miasms, and the role it plays in chronic diseases. But regarding questions such as what is miasms, how it is inherited and such other details, I have difference of opinions with ‘classical’homeopaths. My perspective is different to homeopathy as a whole.

Chandran K C:

In my view, ‘miasms’ are deformed protein molecules such as antibodies, and prions, which are native proteins subjected to ‘molecular imprinting’ by infectious agents. These deformed proteins can create ‘off-target’ molecular bindings and cause diverse types of chronic diseases.

Chandran K C:

Antibodies formed against various types of ‘itch-causing’ and ‘inflamming’ infections are ‘psora’. Antibodies against various ‘cell-proliferating’ infections such as HPV and Gonorrhoea are ‘sycosis’. Antibodies against various ‘cell-degenerative’ infections such as ‘syphilis’ belong to ‘syphilitic’ miasm.

Chandran  K C:

These antibodies and prion-like defective proteins can remain in the organism life long, and can be transferred to offsprings through maternal blood

Chandran K C:


Chandran  K C:

For example, antibodies formed against streptococcus skin infections and sorethroats are known to attack kidneys, joints and endocardial membranes, resulting in various chronic diseases. This can be included in ‘miasm’ of psora’.

Chandran K C:

Antibodies formed against wart-forming’ human papilloma virus may bind to enzymes involved in gene expressions, thereby causing cellular proliferations, indurations and cancers. This can be included in ‘miasm’ of ‘sycosis’.

Chandran  K C:

Antibodies formed against ‘syphilis’ and similar infections attack different enzyme systems, resulting in cellular degenerations, gangrenes proteiolysis, tand such other conditions. These antibodies may be included in ‘syphilitic’ miasm.

DrPravin Dhole:

streptococcus , staphylococcus and sore throat are only cultivated in the tubercular or scrofulous spectrum, this suceptibility may tranfer to other system but the miasm will be latent sycotic

Amol Ravande:

to Chandran Nambiar K C sir, plz tell me one thing…we can consider that maternal antibodies are transfered to the child…but what about father? how his antibodies can get transferred to child?..

Amol Ravande::

do u mean to say that child will not get any miasmatic background from father? (as per your theory of antibodies)

Chandran  K C ‎:

@Amol Ravande: Sir, I don’t think antibodies or ‘miasms’ could be transferred from father to his child. Only genetically transferred traits can be inherited from father.

Chandran  K C:

‎@Amol Ravande: But see, if father has got an infection, that infection can be transferred to mother through intercourse or other means, and antibodies formed in her body. We are aware that women develop antibodies even against the semen of their sexual partners.

Chandran  K C ‎:

@Amol Ravande: Sir, I am not arguing to establish any thing. I AM ONLY THINKING ALOUD, AND SHARING MY THOUGHTS WITH YOU.

Chandran  K C:

I am only trying for a scientifically viable explanation for our concept of ‘miasm’

Chandran  K C:

I want to prove ‘theory of miasms’ scientifically; not to disprove it.

Amol Ravande:

sir….definately mother will develop antibodies if father has active disease…but if the disease, suppose gonorrhoea, is treated in father long back before marriage…and as per your concept of miasm as disease,.. now the father has sycosis miasm…and now mother conceivs…do u mean to say that child will not born with sycotic predominance?

Chandran  K C:

‎@Amol Ravande : As per my existing knowledge, I see no chance for that.

Chandran  K C:

I have not learned bout a molecular mechanism to transfer information regarding different antibodies into genetic codes

Chandran  K C:

I do not know whether there exist a mechanism of ‘reverse transcription’ of proteins into RNA and then into DNA. If such a mechanism actually exist, it may be possible.

Amol Ravande:

sir…i’m much junior to u…but i must say that i’m not with u regarding this concept…

Chandran  K C:

‎@Amol Ravande : Sir, I am not worried whether people support me or not. I am saying my convictions and original thoughts. At this stage of evolution, I should not expect people to agree with me, because I am talking to a community trained in classical homeopathy, and many of my concepts go against what you are taught.

Amol Ravande:

ya ofcourse sir….but these comments will help u to improve ur concept…to find lacunae in ur concept..i think we should keep our minds open…that’s why i was trying to explain all these things to u…i have no intensions to hurt or criticise u

Partha Sarathi Ray

I’m re-posting:

@Nambiar Sir: Your answer “As per my existing knowledge, I see no chance for that.” regarding the question of Dr.Ravande sounded much surprising to me.If the new born is not inheriting Sycosis (in this example),then how does he show all latent and prominent symptoms of sycosis after birth and at latter stage?And how can our antisycotic drugs cure him?

Chandran K C

If ‘miasms’ are molecular imprinted proteins such as antibodies and prion-like particles, it is obvious that antibodies cannot be inherited from father to his child. But it can be transferred to child through maternal blood.

Chandran  K C

Regarding ‘cure by anti-sycotic drugs’- No drug can cure if it is not ‘similimum’. A similimum will cure if it is antisycotic or not.

Amol Ravande

so u mean cure has nothing to do with miasm? then why hahnemann has given theory of miasms?

Chandran K C

‎@Amol Ravande : “miasms’ play a role in curing ‘miasmatic diseases. But there are a lot of non-miasmatic diseases. I am questioning the idea that all chronic diseases are miasmatic. I have many times pointed out that hahnemann classified chronic diseases into ‘miasmatic’ and ‘non miasmatic’

Chandran  K C

‎@Amol Ravande : Sir, while saying “hahnemann has given theory of miasms”, you should not forget that he also said about “non-miasmatic’ diseases.

Chandran K C  

Please listen: In Organon : Aphorism 204(Sixth Edition) Hahnemann says:

“If we deduct all chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies caused by …the irrational,… persistent, harassing and pernicious treatment of diseases often only of trivial character by physicians of the old school, most the remainder of chronic diseases result from the development of these three chronic miasms, internal syphilis, internal sycosis, but chiefly and in infinitely greater proportion, internal psora”

This statement shows, Hahneman considered a class of ‘chronic’ diseases’ originating from ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’ and ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’, other than ‘miasmatic chronic diseases’.

Chandran  K C

That means, when treating ‘chronic diseases’ originating from ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’ and ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’, we need not worry about psora, syphilis or sycosis, but we can treat according to ‘similia similibu cu……rentur’. Remember, most of the ‘chronic diseases’ originating from occupational, environmental, nutritional, drug-induced, infectious and such others belong to the class of “chronic diseases originating from ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’ and ‘innumerable medicinal maladies”. THEY ARE NOT CAUSED BY MIASMS OF PSORA, SYPHILIS OR SYCOSIS.

Chandran  K C

It is obvious that Hahnemann excluded “all chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies” while talking about “chronic diseases” of “miasmatic origin”.

Chandran K C

When treating chronic diseases, first we have to examine whether they belong this group of “chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies” . If so we need not consider miasms, but to find a similimum on the basis of ‘similia similibus curentur’.

Chandran K C

Hahnemann even sub-divided “non-miasmatic chronic diseases” into two: a) All chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’. b) those ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’. Why the ‘followers of …the master so far ignored this? When selecting a drug on the basis of ‘miasmatic analysis’, can we ignore ‘similia similibus curentur’? If you prescribe a drug without considering ‘similarity’ of symptoms, how can we claim that it is homeopathy? Did Hahnemann ever advise to replace the therapeutic principle of ‘similia similibus curentur’ with ‘theory of miasms’?

Amol Ravande

i must mention that during hahnemann’s time allopathic treatment was very harsh…leeching, bloodletting, use of mercurial compounds was very much regularly performed. this led to severe suppression and he termed it as medicinal disease…….now the fact is how many of such cases we see now a days? what we see regularly is the diseases like DM, TUMORS, HTN, for which we have to treat the patient with antimiasmatic remedy….there is no point in just making theoratical debates…we have to think about pratical applicability…

Amol Ravande

from your perspective…plz tell me which are nonmiasmatic diseases?

Chandran K C

‎@Partha Sarathi Ray: Sir, your question “if the new born is not inheriting Sycosis (in this example),then how does he show all latent and prominent symptoms of sycosis after birth and at latter stage? And how can our antisycotic drugs cure him?” is very important.

You also said that my answer regarding the question of genetic transfer of sycosis from father to child “as per my existing knowledge, I see no chance for that.” sounded much surprising to you.

First of all please note that Hahnemann described “miasms” as an “infectious agent”, which was “inherited through generations of of humanity”. Only because he said about ‘inheriting through generations’, why should we jump to the conclusion that hahnemann was talking about ‘genetic transfer of miasms’? Remember, nothing was known about modern genetics during his time, and he was not in a position to think about ‘genetic transfer’. “Inherited through generations’ only means that the “infectious agents” were transferred through generations. That means, the infections remained here all along many generations. The term ‘inheritance’ is used not only for ‘genetic inheritance’. We use that term for ‘inheritance of property rights’, ‘inheritance of titles’ and many other things. Hahnemann only could have meant that type of ‘inheritance of infectious agents’.

In our anxiety to make the “master” the “greatest scientist’ and ‘geneticist’ ever lived, we are putting our interpretations and words into his mouth. That is very inappropriate.

Coming to the point of inheritance of ‘sycosis’ from father to child. I have earlier explained that what hahnemann called “sycotic miasm’ was actually a ‘mixed miasm’ arising from sexually transmitted gonorrhoea, human papilloma virus and various yeast infections, that can cause infections in genital tract, warts, uterine fibroids and various other chronic ailments. According to me, the miasm of ‘sycosis’ is the antibodies generated against these infections, which can cause diverse types of chronic diseases including tumors and cancers through off-target molecular bindings.

If a man is infected in his genital tract with these mixed infections, after expressing a few initial symptoms, the infection turns silent, and he would appear to be normal and free of disease. But he can transfer his infections to his sexual partner life long. In women also, after a few initial symptoms such as UTI and vaginal discharges, infections turns silent. But she can infect anybody who engages in sexual intercourse with her. If the man was already infected earlier, both of them would not show any symptoms of infection. The woman can transfer the ‘infectious agents’ to her child from genital tract during delivery, or transfer the antibodies to the infant through maternal blood. Any way, ‘infectious agents’ of ‘sycotic miasms’ would be transferred to the next generation. There is no any involvement of GENETIC TRANSFER here. If the father is infected, there is all chance for ‘transfer of miasm’ to the infant through the mediation of mother.

If still you want to ‘believe’ or ‘establish’ that ‘sycosis is inherited through GENES, I am helpless, sir.

Amol Ravande

sir…i must mention that after taking treatment..either allopathic or homoeopathic, even a trace of bacteria didnot remain in semen of father…do u mean to say that once someone gets gonorrhoea..lifelong bacterias are present in his semen?

Chandran K C

‎@Amol Ravande: It is not a question of ‘my perspective’. Hahnemann has already told about the ‘non-miasmatic’ chronic diseases. I have quoted him many times during this conversation.

In Organon : Aphorism 204(Sixth Edition) Hahnemann says:…

“If we deduct all chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies caused by the irrational,… persistent, harassing and pernicious treatment of diseases often only of trivial character by physicians of the old school, most the remainder of chronic diseases result from the development of these three chronic miasms, internal syphilis, internal sycosis, but chiefly and in infinitely greater proportion, internal psora”

This statement shows, Hahneman considered a class of ‘chronic’ diseases’ originating from ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’ and ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’, other than ‘miasmatic chronic diseases’.

It is obvious that Hahnemann excluded “all chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies” while talking about “chronic diseases” of “miasmatic origin”.

We should notice that hahnemann was well conscious about two distinct classes of chronic diseases: 1. All chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’, as also those ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’. 2. Miasmatic chronic diseases arising from psora, syphilis and sycosis. He never said one class is ‘pseudo’ and other is ‘true’.

Hahnemann even sub-divided “non-miasmatic chronic diseases” into two: a) All chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a ‘persistent unhealthy mode of living’. b) those ‘innumerable medicinal maladies’. Why the ‘followers of the master so far ignored this?

When treating chronic diseases, first we have to examine whether they belong this group of “chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies” . If so we need not consider miasms, but to find a similimum on the basis of ‘similia similibus curentur’.

Chandran K C

Amol Ravande: Sir, I am not available for an argument on this topic. I have explained my convictions here. If you feel I am wrong, and if you want to believe otherwise, let it be so. I have decided not to engage in arguments. I would explai…n my ideas. That is all. All of us are prejudiced, and engage in discussions only to disprove and defeat others. I have decided to avoid such arguments. If anybody believe I am wrong, I will not try to convince him through arguments.

Chandran K C ‎

@Amol Ravande : Sir, please comment on what I said about ‘non-miasmatic diseases’. LET US DISCUSS

Chandran  K C

For the time being, let us concentrate on two points:. i. Non-miasmatic diseases. 2.whether miasms are genetically inherited.

Chandran K C

‎@Amol Ravande : From hahnemanns descriptions of sycosis, I do not see ‘sycosis’ as a simple gonorrhoeal miasm. Gonnrorrhoea cannot cause warts or uterine fibroids. It might me a mixed infection of gonorroea, HPV and yeast infections, all sexually transmitted.

Chandran K C

The problem is, we have been trained all these years in such a way that we cannot think about chronic diseases without linking with syphilis, sycosis and psora. We totally ignored hahnemanns observations regarding ‘non-miasmatic chronic di…seases’. You are not willing to hear somebody saying differently from what you have been taught. If we observe the various chronic diseass we encounter daily, we would see that most of them belong to “chronic affections, ailments and diseases that depend on a persistent unhealthy mode of living, as also those innumerable medicinal maladies”, which are ‘non-miasmatic’ according to hahnemann.. Those life style diseases, effects of vaccinations, drugging, environmental toxicit, occupational diseases. nutritional diseases, all belong to this class of ‘non-miasmatic’ diseases.

Chandran  K C

I know, it will be difficult for you to agree with what I say, because you have been trained to think in a different way. I WOULD REQUEST YOU TO APPLY SOME LOGIC AND RATIONAL THINKING.

Chandran K C :

One of the most confusing and most controversial part of homeopathy is the theory of ‘miasms’ and ‘chronic diseases’. Each homeopath understands, interprets and applies this theory in his own way. I think we need a logical and universally acceptable understanding of this concept, that would fit to the available scientific knowledge system and clinical experiences of homeopaths, and provide guidance in our practice.

  Chandran  K C :

One respected homeopath responded to this statement: “dont worry even based on the old theory it is working wonderfully”. That shows he is not much pleased about my attempts of explaining ‘miasm’ and homeopathy at large. I know there would …be many people to agree with him. They are not ‘worried’ because they think homeopathy ‘works well even based on old theories’. I would like to tell them, any objective law of nature would work ‘wonderfully’ even if we do not know ‘how it works’ or even if we interpreted it wrongly. Electricity was ‘working’ here much before we knew anything about electricity. But knowing ‘how exactly it works’ would help us to utilize it more effectively. I think it is applicable to our scientific understanding of ‘miasms’ also. “As far as something is working well, we need not try to understand it better” is a way of thinking not acceptable to scientific-minded people. If that philosophy is accepted, there would not be any scientific research, since everything around us “working well” even without we knowing “how exactly it works”!

Chandran K C :

In Para 12 of CHRONIC DISEASES, Hahnemann says: “PSORA has thus become the most infectious and most general of all the chronic miasmas”. That means hahnemann talks about a ‘psora’ that can be got transferred from person to to person as INFE…CTIONS. Do we have to believe that we will get infected with ‘PSORIC MIASM’ by some sort of physical contact with a ‘PSORIC’ person?

If PSORA is “immaterial” and “dynamic”, and if it is MOST INFECTIOUS as hahnemann says, would it be transferred from a PSORIC man to a NON-PSORIC man in a “dynamic” way, without the mediation of any “INFECTIOUS MATERIALS? I have no idea about the mean distance between persons required for such a “dynamic infection” of psora to happen. Some people say that “dynamic drug powers” can be transferred to distant places. Can PSORA also can infect “dynamically” from person to person who are at very distant places?

Chandran K C:

Homeopathic understanding and management of ‘chronic disease’ is based on the concept of ‘miasms’. Hahnemann has provided detailed explanations regarding three types of ‘miasms’ such as ‘psora’, ‘syphills’ and ‘sycosis’. Theory of ‘miasms’… and chronic diseases were developed during later part of Hahnemann’s life, when he learned from his clinical experience that medicines selected on the basis of similarity of symptoms as he advocated earlier offered only temporary relief to the most patients.

According to his theory of ‘chronic diseases’, ‘psora’, the ‘miasm’ of suppressed ‘itch’, is the underlying primary cause of all chronic diseases other than those of ‘venereal’ origin. ‘Psora’ is said to be the greatest obstruction to cure. Other two miasms, ‘syphilis’ and ‘sycosis’ are considered to be miasms of venereal diseases, ‘syphilis’ and ‘gonorrhoea’ respectively. Hahnemann considered ‘psora’ to be the most important and universal ‘miasm’. According to his theory, unless this ‘miasm’ or ‘disease poison’ is eradicated with appropriate ‘anti-psoric’ drugs, permanent and lasting cure cannot be attained.

The primary forms of expression of ‘psora’ is considered to be the itching eruptions on skin, that of ‘syphilis’ un-healing tissue destructions like malignant ulcers, and that of ‘sycosis’ warts and condylomata.

Chandran K C:

Now, let us try to analyze the concept of miasms and chronic diseases in the light of scientific understanding of molecular biology, ‘similia similibus curentur’ and ‘potentization’.

Human organism is constantly exposed to the attacks of various types of exogenous and endogenous foreign molecules and ions. They may bind to the complex native biological molecules, thereby deforming their configuration and making them incapable of participating in the normal bio-chemical interactions. As per scientific view, this phenomenon underlies the molecular basis of most pathological conditions.

If the pathological foreign molecules are of protein nature, native biological defense proteins having configurational affinity to these foreign proteins attaches to them, destroys and removes them from the organism as part of body’s defense mechanism. During this defense process, some of the involved native protein molecules get configurationally deformed by the interaction with foreign molecules. Native protein molecules so deformed will be carrying the 3-D spacial impressions of the interacted foreign molecules on their periphery. These impressions exist as three dimensional pockets, having a configuration complementary to that of foreign proteins. These molecular imprinted proteins thus become incapacitated for their normal biological processes, and remain a burden in the organism. Antibodies actually belong to this class of such deformed globulin proteins, subjected to ‘molecular imprinting’ by foreign proteins.

Certain endogenous molecules and ions such as hormones, neuro-chemicals, and other metabolic byproducts such as super-oxides, when circulated in excess, may also attach to various bio-molecules other than their natural targets, and induce configurational changes in them.

These deformed native proteins may circulate in the system, and accidentally attach to various bio-molecules having complementary configurational affinity, thereby creating various molecular errors and pathological deviations.

Configurational changes happening in enzymes of protein nature involved with genetic expressions and DNA synthesis may ultimately lead to various types of proteinopathies, or may result in mutations happening in genetic substance itself, with subsequent hereditary diseases. If the enzymes involved in genetic expressions get deformed by molecular imprinting, it may affect the process of normal protein synthesis, and produce related pathological conditions. It may be noted that heavy metal ions and certain poisonous substances such as alkaloids and organophos chemicals also can inhibit the enzymes associated with DNA synthesis, and create genetic errors.

Chandran K C:

Obviously, modern scientific knowledge regarding subjects such as antibodies, proteinopathies, genetic expressions, molecular imprinted proteins, etc., were not available during the era of Hahnemann, when he undertook the study of chronic diseases. Had he understood the exact bio–molecular basis of these phenomena, he would have provided a theory of chronic diseases entirely different from that he had formulated. At that time, it was the wonderful insight of the great genius of Hahnemann that enabled him to observe the deep-seated factors playing behind the chronic diseases that he called ‘miasms’. During that period, even before the appearance of antibiotics modern microscope, most dreaded diseases such as eczema, leprosy, syphilis and gonorrhoea were rampant in europe. He observed that in spite of the various crude forms of treatments available then, these diseases continued their manifestations during the whole life span of patients. Naturally, his theory of chronic disease was more involved with the long term effects of these diseases. He used the term ‘miasm’ to describe these chronic disease factors. By the term ‘miasm’, he really meant ‘disease poisons’. The miasm of ‘itch’(and leprosy) was called as ‘psora’, the ‘miasm of syphilis as ‘syphilis’, and that of gonorrhoea as ‘sycosis’. Now, based on modern scientific knowledge, we can say that ‘miasms’ are the antibodies or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ created in the organism due to the interaction of native proteins with various bacterial, viral or fungal toxins of protein nature. Various environmental allergens, and certain endogenous molecules and metabolic bye-products may also imprint up on native defense proteins and convert them into chronic ‘miasms’.

Chandran K C:

Antibodies produced in the organism against scabies (itch), leprosy, and tuberculosis belong to same class, and give positive reaction to ‘tuberculin’ antigen tests. This indicates that toxins released by these bacteria have certain similar… molecular groups in them, and the molecular imprints or antibodies against those groups also have certain configurational similarities. Actually, these ‘molecular imprints’ belong to the ‘miasms’ of ‘psora’ described by Hahnemann. Homeopaths already know that potentized ‘tuberculinum’, ‘bacillinum’, and ‘psorinum’ play a wonderful role in the treatment of scabies and other skin eruptions, and the chronic conditions related with them.

Chandran K C:

It may be interesting to observe that toxins released by bacteria belonging to mycobacterium group, are molecules containing ‘sulphur’ in their active groups. The presence of sulphur-containing amino acid called cysteine is responsible for this factor. During infection, bacterial toxins bind to the biological molecules of organism using this sulphide group. Naturally, ‘molecular imprints’ or antibodies of these bacterial toxins will have complementary negative configurations of this ‘sulphide’ groups. These ‘molecular imprints’ can attack various bio-molecules in diverse bio-chemic pathways, resulting in different types of constitutional diseases of ‘psoric’ nature. We already know that the antibodies produced against bacterial skin infections may attack heart, kidney, brain, and other vital organs causing different types of diseases. Streptococcal and staphylococcal antibodies formed against acute throat and teeth infections may attack synovial membranes of joints, endocardial linings, and valvular structures of heart. During drug proving, sulphur also binds to the same molecular targets as the sulphur-containing bacterial toxins. The similarity between certain symptom groups expressed by these bacterial infections and the homeopathic provings of sulphur may be specifically noted. Here we get the scientific explanation for the observation of Hahnemann that potentized sulphur is the most important ‘antipsoric’ medicine, or ‘The King of Antipsorics’. It is already known that the amino acid called ‘cysteine’, which contains ‘sulphide’ groups, play an important role in almost all molecular interactions in the organism, involving protein molecules. It may be the reason for the appearance of so many symptom groups, involving almost every organ of the body, in the homoeopathic proving of sulphur. Potentized sulphur can compete with the molecular imprints or antibodies, in their interactions with biological molecules, and act as a most powerful ‘anti psoric’ drug.

Equipped with the knowledge accumulated by modern science in recent years, we are now in a position to provide satisfactory answer to the centuries old riddle of ‘miasm’ and ‘chronic diseases’. There is no further scope or space for metaphysical speculations any more.

Chandran K C:

In recent years, we have heard a lot about researches on a certain class of disease causing agents, called ‘prions’. Prions are deformed complex protein molecules acting as pathogens. Prions were invented during the research on ‘scrapie’ or… ‘mad cow disease’. The actual mechanism of normal protein molecules turning into ‘prions’ has not been well understood yet. Recent studies on the molecular basis of Alzhiemer’s disease, also indicates to the role of deformed proteins in its pathology. Molecular changes associated with normal aging process also have to be examined from this stand point. In my opinion, these issues can be solved from the viewpoint of ‘molecular imprinting in proteins’. More studies are required in this direction.

Chandran  K C:

This is an era of vaccinations. Every human being is subjected to a series of vaccination protocols from the moment of birth, to protect from various diseases. We have to worry about the unknown long term after effects of these vaccinations…. Live or attenuated viruses are introduced into the organism to produce antibodies against pathological infections. Actually, this process induces ‘molecular imprinting’ of native proteins, with the foreign proteins contained in the vaccines. Obviously, the molecular imprints or antibodies thus formed, shall act as ‘miasms’ in the organism. If this type of molecular deformity happens in proteins associated with DNA synthesis or genetic expression, it may result in serious genetic abnormalities. It is high time that we realized this dangerous possibility associated with vaccinations. All these deformed proteins created by vaccinations, act as ‘miasms’, and throw humanity into a sea of complicated chronic diseases much beyond the level observed even by Hahnemann.

Chandran  K C:

For example, let us consider PSORA. It is the antibodies formed against ITCH caused by SCABIE MITES. These SCABIES MITES carries mycobacteria on them, and that is why TUBERCULIN TEST is positive for scabies, tuberculosis and leprosy patient…s. Their antibodies are similar. ALL COMES UNDER PSORA



Chandran K C:

It is interesting to note that even though hahnemann described PSORA as a miasm caused by ‘itch infections’, he did not limit this ‘itch’ to scabies alone. He included leprosy, fungal infections and various other other similar ‘itch’ produc…ing skin infections as the causative factors of psora. It is obvious that he was talking about a ‘class of infections’ as causative agents of PSORA. We know that all these infections produce ‘antibodies’ in the organism by a process of ‘molecular imprinting of native proteins’ with the infectious toxins. Although the natural targets of these antibodies are the infectious agents themselves, antibodies move in the organism freely and may bind to different ‘off-target molecules having configurations similar to natural targets. Such off-target actions of these ‘antibodies’(molecular imprinted proteins or malformed proteins) may cause diverse types of ‘molecular errors’ in various biochemical pathways, resulting in different chronic diseases that we consider belonging to PSORA. According to my view ‘miasm of psora’ includes all antibodies that can trigger a series of molecular interactions that would prompt the ‘regulatory proteins of gene expressions’, to induce the genes to synthesize various ‘inflammatory’ molecules. That is why PSORA is considered to be a miasm behind INFLAMMATORY diseases. According to this interpretation, PSORA is not a single miasm, but a CLASS of miasm or a CLASS of antibodies that can induce genes to produce proteins that would cause inflammatory changes in the system. We can see, all diseases and their symptoms hahnemann included in PSORA exactly fit to this interpretation. LET US SUM UP: A CLASS OF ANTIBODIES AND MALFORMED PROTEINS ARISING FROM MOLECULAR IMPRINTING OF NATIVE PROTIENS WITH A CLASS OF INFECTIOUS TOXINS ARE THE “MOLECULAR CARRIERS OF PSORA”. THESE ANTIBODIES INDUCE THE GENETIC SUBSTANCE TO PRODUCE INFLAMMATORY MOLECULES, THEREBY RESULTING IN INFLAMMATORY CHANGES IN THE ORGANISM.

Chandran K C:

In the same way as PSORA, we can see that SYCOSIS is a CLASS OF MIASM, consisting of antibodies created by by gonorrhoea, human papiloma virus, vaccinosis etc.These antibodies induce GENETIC SYSTEM to produce INDURATIONS , WARTY GROWTHS AND… TUMORS in the organism.

SYPHILITIC miasm consists of a class of antibodies and malformed proteins that induce GENETIC SYSTEM to produce molecules that may cause CELLULAR DESTRUCTION, NON-HEALING ULCERS, NECROSIS etc.

There may be thousands of miasms (antibodies and malformed proteins) in the organism. But all these diverse miasms could be broadly classified into PSORA(INFLAMMATORY), SYCOSIS(INDURATIONS), and SYPHILIS(CELLULAR DECAY). Thus we can say, there exists THREE CLASSES OF MIASMS

Harishkumar Shinde:

Dear sir, you are started a very good discussion on the subject of MIASM here but therotically understanding miasm is a different thing and clinically applying miasms in practic is very different thing. so the miasm states the present disea…se state and it shows the path of the prognosis of disease, and miasm gives clue for perfect prescription. after proper studying your blog i am ready to discuss on miasms we will discuss, Thanks

Yogesh Upadhyay Homoeopath:

very good explanation by chandran sir really gud to discuss this will elaborate our knowledge of miasm

Chandran  K C:

‎@Yogesh Upadhyay Homoeopath and @Harishkumar Shinde : Thank you sir. I expect a meaningful discourse between us on this topic.

Chandran  K C:

‎@Yogesh Upadhyay Homoeopath and @Harishkumar Shinde : I am waiting for your comments to take this thread forward.

Manish Kumar:

chandran sir as i read all the explanation regarding miasm is very perticular,you did not consider the individual reaction regarding the miasmatic state,the progress of disease itself defying the miasmatic state of individual.the thinking and behaviour of the individual also carry significance,when we categorize miasm,not only pathological condition responsible for miasmatic expression.

Chandran K C:

‎@Manish Kumar: Sir, “the thinking and behavior of the individual” also has a molecular level process behind it. I think we need not consider mental and physical aspects as separate entities. When I talk about pathology I mean ‘molecular pathology’ which is common for mental and physical ‘expressions’.

Manish Kumar:

regarding molecular biology as you raised the question regarding heriditary mechanism of miasm,yes miasm can be travel through one generation to another,hapten is a molecule made up of polypeptide chain which responsible for it,and whwn we …talk about antibodies only iGg immunoglobulin can cross the placental barrier,this immunoglobulin help the palsma cell to form antibodies,and manufacture the interferon and inflamatory substance,miasmgives us clue to observe the bhaviour of the disease which reflect in individual,and it cons

Chandran K C:

@ Manish Kumar: Sir, I feel we share a lot of common concepts regarding ‘miasms’.

Manish Kumar:

why not sir it’s my pleasure

Manish Kumar:

and it can travel from distence also,because if any remedy show it’s manifestation to individual from distence then why not it affect the over individuality of the patient and miasm is also an integral part of individual constitution so it can work

Chandran K C:

‎@Manish Kumar ; Sir, kindly explain your statement “it can travel from distance”. I got confused on that point’

Sayan Bhattacharya:

@ Robert and J.H. Allen…has written quite beautifully much about miasms…but in reality very few teachers can teach us MIASMS. I mean at the bed side.

Aude Sapere:

Beautifly illustrated. Thank u Sir!

Kranti Kumar:


Manasbikash Mandal :

as per my knowledge,homoeopathy cannot be completed without miasm. it is the heart of homoeopathy.

Chandran  K C:

‎@Manasbikash Mandal : I agree sir. Understanding of ‘miasms’ working an individual is essential for a therapeutic intervention to offer ‘total cure’. But I was trying to explain what is exactly the ‘material basis’ of ‘miasms’.

Chandran K C:

‎@Kranti Kumar: I agree with your statement “MIASM IS VERY MUCH AN INFECTIVE PATHOLOGICAL AGENCY WHICH ONCE INFECTS THE HEALHY ANIMAL ECONOMY CREATES SOME PERMANENT DISTURBANCE”. I was trying to explain this phenomenon in terms of antibodies and malformed proteins formed by molecular imprinting of native proteins by exogenous and endogenous pathogenic agents.

Infectious Agents Of ‘Itch’- The Causative Factors Of Miasm Of ‘Psora’

According to samuel Hahnemann, the “miasm” of PSORA is the cause of a wide range of chronic diseases. He explained PSORA as the residual chronic effects of INFECTIOUS AGENTS OF ITCH.

If anybody has least doubt whether or not hahnemann was talking about the ‘miasm of psora’ as originating from ‘infection of itch disease’, kindly read this part from ‘Chronic Diseases’-Para 37:

“Psora (itch disease), like syphilis, is a miasmatic chronic disease, and its original development is similar. The itch disease is, however, also the most contagious of all chronic miasmata, far more infectious than the other two chronic miasmata, the venereal chancre disease and the figwart disease”.

“But the miasma of the itch needs only to touch the general skin, especially with tender children”.

“No other chronic miasma infects more generally, more surely, more easily and more absolutely than the miasma of itch; as already stated, it is the most contagious of all. It is communicated so easily, that even the physician, hurrying from one patient to another, in feeling the pulse has unconsciously inoculated other patients with it; wash which is washed with wash infected with the itch; new gloves which had been tried on by an itch patient, a strange lodging place, a strange towel used for drying oneself have communicated this tinder of contagion; yea, often a babe, when being born, is infected while passing through the organs of the mother, who may be infected (as is not infrequently the case) with this disease; or the babe receives this unlucky infection through the hand of the midwife, which has been infected by another parturient woman (or previously); or, again, a suckling may be infected by its nurse, or, while on her arm, by her caresses or the caresses of a strange person with unclean hands; not to mention the thousands of other possible ways in which things polluted with this invisible miasma may touch a man in the course of his life, and which often can in no way be anticipated or guarded against, so that men who have never been infected by the psora are the exception. We need not to hunt for the causes of infection in crowded hospitals, factories, prisons, or in orphan houses, or in the filthy huts of paupers; even in active life, in retirement, and in the rich classes, the itch creeps in.”

I think we have to study the INFECTIOUS AGENTS OF ITCH in detail, in order to understand the MIASM OF PSORA. Then only we can realize why Hahnemann considered PSORA as the mother of CHRONIC DISEASES

Scabies (from Latin: scabere, “to scratch”), known colloquially as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infection that occurs among humans and other animals. It is caused by a tiny and usually not directly visible parasite, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows under the host’s skin, causing intense allergic itching. The infection in animals (caused by different but related mite species) is called sarcoptic mange.

The disease may be transmitted from objects but is most often transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact, with a higher risk with prolonged contact. Initial infections require four to six weeks to become symptomatic. Reinfection, however, may manifest symptoms within as little as 24 hours. Because the symptoms are allergic, their delay in onset is often mirrored by a significant delay in relief after the parasites have been eradicated. Crusted scabies, formerly known as Norwegian scabies, is a more severe form of the infection often associated with immunosuppression.

The characteristic symptoms of a scabies infection include intense itching and superficial burrows. The burrow tracks are often linear, to the point that a neat “line” of four or more closely-placed and equally-developed mosquito-like “bites,” is almost diagnostic of the disease.

In the classic scenario, the itch is made worse by warmth and is usually experienced as being worse at night, possibly because there are fewer distractions. As a symptom it is less common in the elderly.

The superficial burrows of scabies usually occur in the area of the hands, feet, wrists, elbows, back, buttocks, and external genitals. The burrows are created by excavation of the adult mite in the epidermis.

In most people, the trails of the burrowing mites show as linear or s-shaped tracks in the skin, often accompanied by what appear as rows of small pimple-like mosquito, or insect bites. These signs are often found in crevices of the body, such as on the webs of fingers and toes, around the genital area, and under the breasts of women.

Symptoms typically appear 2–6 weeks after infestation for individuals never before exposed to scabies. For those having been previously exposed, the symptoms can appear within several days after infestation. However, it is not unknown for symptoms to appear after several months or years. Acropustulosis, or blisters and pustules on the palms and soles of the feet, are characteristic symptoms of scabies in infants.

The elderly and people with an impaired immune system, such as HIV and cancer sufferers or transplant patients on immunosuppressive drugs, are susceptible to crusted scabies (formerly called “Norwegian scabies”). On those with a weaker immune system, the host becomes a more fertile breeding ground for the mites, which spread over the host’s body, except the face. Sufferers of crusted scabies exhibit scaly rashes, slight itching, and thick crusts of skin that contain thousands of mites. Such areas make eradication of mites particularly difficult, as the crusts protect the mites from topical miticides, necessitating prolonged treatment of these areas.

In the 18th century, Italian biologist Diacinto Cestoni (1637–1718) described the mite now called Sarcoptes scabiei, variety hominis, as the cause of scabies. Sarcoptes is a genus of skin parasites and part of the larger family of mites collectively known as “scab mites”. These organisms have 8 legs as adults, and are placed in the same phylogenetic class (Arachnida) as spiders and ticks.

Sarcoptes scabiei are microscopic, but sometimes are visible as pinpoints of white. Pregnant females tunnel into the stratum corneum of a host’s skin and deposit eggs in the burrows. The eggs hatch into larvae in 3–10 days. These young mites move about on the skin and molt into a “nymphal” stage, before maturing as adults, which live 3–4 weeks in the host’s skin. Males roam on top of the skin, occasionally burrowing into the skin. In general, there are usually few mites on a healthy hygienic person infested with non-crusted scabies; approximately 11 females in burrows can be found on such a person.

The movement of mites within and on the skin produces an intense itch, which has the characteristics of a delayed cell-mediated inflammatory response to allergens. IgE antibodies are present in the serum and the site of infection, which react to multiple protein allergens the body of the mite. Some of these cross-react to allergens from house-dust mites. Immediate antibody-mediated allergic reactions (wheals) have been elicited in infected persons, but not in healthy persons; immediate hypersensitivity of this type is thought to explain the observed far more rapid allergic skin response to reinfection seen in persons having been previously infected (especially having been infected within the previous year or two).  Because the host develops the symptoms as a reaction to the mites’ presence over time, there is usually a 4– to 6-week incubation period after the onset of infestation. As noted, those previously infected with scabies and cured may exhibit the symptoms of a new infection in a much shorter period, as little as 1–4 days.

Scabies is contagious, and can be spread by scratching an infected area, thereby picking up the mites under the fingernails, or through physical contact with a scabies-infected person for a prolonged period of time.  Scabies is usually transmitted by direct skin-to-skin physical contact. It can also be spread through contact with other objects, such as clothing, bedding, furniture, or surfaces with which a person infected with scabies might have come in contact, but these are uncommon ways to transmit scabies.  Scabies mites can survive without a human host for 24 to 36 hours.  As with lice, scabies can be transmitted through sexual intercourse even if a latex condom is used, because it is transmitted from skin-to-skin at sites other than sex organs.

The symptoms are caused by an allergic reaction of the host’s body to mite proteins, though exactly which proteins remains a topic of study. The mite proteins are also present from the gut, in mite feces, which are deposited under the skin. The allergic reaction is both of the delayed (cell-mediated) and immediate (antibody-mediated) type, and involves IgE (antibodies, it is presumed, mediate the very rapid symptoms on re-infection). The allergy-type symptoms (itching) continue for some days, and even several weeks, after all mites are killed. New lesions may appear for a few days after mites are eradicated. Nodular lesions from scabies may continue to be symptomatic for weeks after the mites have been killed.

Scabies may be diagnosed clinically in geographical areas where it is common when diffuse itching presents along with either lesions in two typical spots or there is itchiness of another household member. The classical sign of scabies is the burrows made by the mites within the skin. To detect the burrow the suspected area is rubbed with ink from a fountain pen or a topical tetracycline solution, which glows under a special light. The skin is then wiped with an alcohol pad. If the person is infected with scabies, the characteristic zigzag or “S” pattern of the burrow will appear across the skin; however, interpreting this test may be difficult, as the burrows are scarce and may be obscured by scratch marks.  A definitive diagnosis is made by finding either the scabies mites or their eggs and fecal pellets. Searches for these signs involve either scraping a suspected area, mounting the sample in potassium hydroxide, and examining it under a microscope, or using dermoscopy to examine the skin directly.

Symptoms of early scabies infestation mirror other skin diseases, including dermatitis, syphilis, various urticaria-related syndromes, allergic reactions, and other ectoparasites such as lice and fleas.

Mass treatment programs that use topical permethrin or oral ivermectin have been effective in reducing the prevalence of scabies in a number of populations. There is no vaccine available for scabies. The simultaneous treatment of all close contacts is recommended, even if they show no symptoms of infection (asymptomatic), to reduce rates of recurrence.  Asymptomatic infection is relatively common. Objects in the environment pose little risk of transmission except in the case of crusted scabies, thus cleaning is of little importance.  Rooms used by those with crusted scabies require thorough cleaning.

A number of medications are effective in treating scabies, however treatment must often involve the entire household or community to prevent re-infection. Options to improve itchiness include antihistamines.

Scabies is one of the three most common skin disorders in children along with tinea and pyoderma. The mites are distributed around the world and equally infects all ages, races, and socioeconomic classes in different climates. Scabies is more often seen in crowded areas with unhygienic living conditions. Globally as of 2009, it is estimated that 300 million cases of scabies occur each year, although various parties claim the figure is either over- or underestimated. There are one million cases of scabies in the United States annually. About 1–10% of the global population is estimated to be infected with scabies, but in certain populations, the infection rate may be as high as 50–80%.[Scabies is one of the three most common dermatological disorders in children.

Scabies is an ancient disease. Archeological evidence from Egypt and the Middle East suggests that scabies was present as early as 494 BC. The first recorded reference to scabies is believed to be from the Bible (Leviticus, the third book of Moses) ca. 1200 BC.  Later in fourth century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle reported on “lice” that “escape from little pimples if they are pricked”;  scholars believe this was actually a reference to scabies.

Nevertheless, it was Roman physician Celsus who is credited with naming the disease “scabies” and describing its characteristic features. The parasitic etiology of scabies was later documented by the Italian physician Giovanni Cosimo Bonomo (1663–99 AD) in his famous 1687 letter, “Observations concerning the fleshworms of the human body.” With this (disputed) discovery, scabies became one of the first diseases with a known cause.

Scabies may occur in a number of domestic and wild animals; the mites that cause these infestations are of different scabies subspecies. These subspecies can infest animals or humans that are not their usual hosts, but such infections do not last long.  Scabies-infected animals suffer severe itching and secondary skin infections. They often lose weight and become frail.

The most frequently diagnosed form of scabies in domestic animals is sarcoptic mange, which is found on dogs. The scab mite Psoroptes is the mite responsible for mange. Scabies-infected domestic fowls suffer what is known as “scabies leg”.  Domestic animals that have gone feral and have no veterinary care are frequently afflicted with scabies and a host of other ailments. Non-domestic animals have also been observed to suffer from scabies. Gorillas, for instance, are known to be susceptible to infection via contact with items used by humans.

Please listen to this:

“Archeological evidence from Egypt and the Middle East suggests that scabies was present as early as 494 BC. The first recorded reference to scabies is believed to be from the Bible (Leviticus, the third book of Moses) ca. 1200 BC.” Now we can understand why hahnemann said PSORA has been inherited through “GENERATIONS OF HUMANITY” up to our period. Even now most of us get infected with ITCH in early life, and ANTIBODIES are formed in our body, which is the exact material basis of all those diseases we consider of PSORIC MIASM

Please note this also:

“Globally as of 2009, it is estimated that 300 million cases of scabies occur each year, although various parties claim the figure is either over- or underestimated. There are one million cases of scabies in the United States annually. About 1–10% of the global population is estimated to be infected with scabies, but in certain populations, the infection rate may be as high as 50–80%.[Scabies is one of the three most common dermatological disorders in children”.Even now, in spite of all modern treatments and personal hygeine, this remains the most widespread disease affecting humanity. Imagine what would be the situation during hahnemann’s period. NO WONDER, HAHNEMANN CONSIDERED PSORA AS THE MOTHER OF CHRONIC DISEASES.


“The symptoms are caused by an allergic reaction of the host’s body to mite proteins, though exactly which proteins remains a topic of study”. As part of this allergic response of our body to “mite proteins”, antibodies are generated. “The allergic reaction is both of the delayed (cell-mediated) and immediate (antibody-mediated) type, and involves IgE (antibodies, it is presumed, mediate the very rapid symptoms on re-infection)”. These antibodies remain life long in our body as CHRONIC MIASMS. Antibodies can attack OFF-TARGET biological molecules in various biochemical channels in the body, resulting in diverse types of CHRONIC diseases belonging to MIASM OF PSORA.

Latest available studies states that the SCABIES MITES carries different species of BACTERIA on their wings and body, and the toxins secreted by these BACTERIA are the the real molecular factors that give rise to allergic reactions during MITE infections. If that is true, SCABIES or PSORA will have to ultimately considered as BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.

Antibodies are native globulin proteins ‘imprinted’ with exogenous protein molecules entering into the organism from the environment, as infections, food, drugs, toxins or as part of any interactions with the environment. These exogenous proteins may come from bacterial/viral/fungal/parasitic infections that invade the body, bites and stings of insects and serpents, uncooked food articles, drugs like antibiotics and serum, vaccines, and so on. These exogenous foreign proteins, alien to our genetic constitution, are dangerous to the normal functioning of the organism, and have to be destroyed or eradicated. Body has a well organized defense system for this, which we call immune system. Foreign proteins are called antigens. Body prepares immune bodies or antibodies against these dangerous invaders. Antibodies are specific to each antigen, There are also polyclonal antibodies, which can identify different antigens. Antibodies are exactly native proteins of globulin types, which have peculiar molecular structure with an active group known as ‘paratope’ on its periphery. Active groups of antigen molecules are known as ‘epitopes’. Epitopes of antigens and paratopes of antibodies has a ‘key-lock’ relationship of configuration. They should fit exactly each other in order to happen an immune reaction. Paratopes of antibodies once interacted with epitopes of a particular antigen undergoes a process of ‘molecular imprinting’, by which the ‘memory’ of epitope is imprinted into the paratope of antibody. Even after the antigens are destroyed and eradicated by the immune system, these ‘molecular imprinted’ globulins, or antibodies exist and circulate in the organism, in most cases life long. This is the mechanism by which life long immunity is attained through certan infections and vaccinations. These antibodies, or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ are very important part of our defense system, playing a vital role in protecting us against infections.

Same time, these ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ or antibodies plays a negative role also, which is what we call ‘miasms’. They can act as pathogenic factors. Whenever these antibodies happen to come in contact with a native biological molecule having a structural group of configuration similar to the ‘epitope’ of its natural antigen, its paratope binds to it and inhibits the biological molecules. This is a ‘molecular error’ amounting to a state of pathology. Diverse types of chronic diseases and dispositions are created by the antibodies in the organism. These pathological conditions caused by ‘off-target’ binding of antibodies or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ are the real ‘miasms’ hahnemann described as the underlying factors of ‘chronic diseases’.

Obviously, identifying and removal of these ‘off-target’ molecular blocks or ‘miasms’ caused by antibodies or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ is an important part in the treatment of chronic diseases. Observing and collecting the whole history of infections and intoxications that might have generated antibodies are important in the management of chronic diseases. History of skin infections, venereal infections, stings of poisonous creatures, vaccinations, serum/antibiotic treatments, sensitization with protein foods etc. has to be collected in detail and appropriate ‘anti-miasmatics’ included in the treatment protocols of chronic treatments.

Another important thing we have to remember is that we cannot permanently inactivate ‘antibodies’ using potentized nosodes or anti-miasmatic drugs. Our drugs may act in two ways. If the nosodes are prepared from antibodies themselves, they contain ‘molecular imprints of epitopes of ‘exogenous toxins’ or antigens themselves. These ‘molecular imprints can compete with the paratopes of antibodies in binding to biological molecues, and prevent them from creating ‘off-target’ biological blocks. Since ‘molecular imprints’ cannot successfully compete with the epitopes of antigens in binding with the paratopes of antibodies, our potentized drugs never interferes with the normal immune mechanism of the body. They only prevents antibodies from binding to ‘off-target’ biological molecules, and thus act as ‘antimiasmatics’.

If we are preparing nosodes by potentizing antibodies themselves, our drugs contains ‘molecular imprints’ of paratopes of antibodies. These molecular imprints can bind to the paratopes, thereby preventing them from interacting with ‘off-target’ biological molecules. Same time, they also cannot interfere in the interaction between antibodies and their natural antigens, which have comparatively increased affinity. In any way, potentized nosodes or ‘antimiasmatics’ will not weaken the normal immunological mechanism of the organism.

Since we cannot eradicate or permanently inactivate antibodies or miasms with our potentized drugs, we have to administer antimiasmatic drugs in frequent intervals, probably life long. This is a very important realization evolving from the understanding of ‘miasms’ as ‘antibodies’ or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’.

I think hahnemann included all ‘itch’ producing infections under the carpet of ‘psora’. He mentioned about Leprosy, scarlet fever, scabies and many such ‘infectious’ agents as causative factors of psora. He talked about “three miasms”, only because those three infectious agents were creating havoc in europe during his period. According to me, this classification of psora, syphilis and sycosis is not much relevant if we understand ‘miasms’ in terms of ‘antibodies’.