‘Energy Medicine’- Breeding Ground Of All Unscientific Nonsense Theories In Homeopathy

Without freeing homeopathy from the malignant influence of diverse shades of ‘energy medicine’ theories and their highly influential international propagators, we cannot hope to establish homeopathy as a scientific medical practice.

‘Homeopathy is energy medicine’- this theory is widely propagated world over by proponents of diverse colors of occult and pseudo-scientific practices destroying the scientific credentials of homeopathy.  They propagate ‘vibration theory’, ‘bio-magnetism’,’wave theory’, ‘electro-magnetic radiations’,  ‘frequencies’, ‘resonance theory’, ‘energy medicine’ and various other theories, pretending themselves to be ‘ultra-scientific’. They would discuss topics such as ]how the electro-magnetic signals are produced’, ‘the basic bakground radiation’,  and how ‘piezo electicity is generated during potentization’.

These theoreticians promote occult practices in the label of homeopathy, such as hair transmission, telephone transmission, photo transmission, mp3 file transmission, telepathy, radionics, dowsing, spiritual homeopathy and such things. I consider all these theories as ‘unscientific’, which harm the interests of homeopathy by providing arms and fuels to ‘anti-homeopathic’ skeptics. Without abandoning these ‘ultra-science’ and ‘fringe-science’ theories, we cannot make homeopathy a medical science.

These people construct fanciful theories about potentization and homeopathic therapeutics.  They would mix up ‘Energy transfer’,  ‘conversion of matter into energy’ and ‘law of conservation of energy’.

By the concept of ‘energy transfer’, they mean that the ‘drug energy’ is transferred to the medium as ‘vibrations’ during potentization, and these ‘vibrations’ interacts with the vibrations of organism and heals the organism due to ‘resonance’ phenomenon. This theory is most dear to proponents of all sort of occult practices, including ‘spiritual healing’.

Many homeopaths fall prey to the influence this unscientific theories knowingly or unknowingly, and ultimately fail to understand even if anybody talk about homeopathy in scientific language to them.

Many homeopaths believe that drug substances are converted to ‘energy’ during potentization. ‘Matter’ getting ‘converted’ to ‘energy’ during potentization is a concept widely propagated by people trying to establish that homeopathy is ‘energy medicine’. I would request them to seriously think over the point I try make out here. No doubt, “matter is nothing but a package of ENERGY as you say. But do you think matter can be ‘unpacked’ into energy by the simple process of ‘succussion and dilution’ involved in potentization? Do you know how much energy you need to break even the chemical bonds that holds atoms together in a molecule? ‘Converting matter into energy’ means not only breaking of chemical bonds, but breaking atoms into subatomic particles, and subatomic particles into ‘energy’. How can anybody imagine we can make atomic division happening through our simple process of potentization? Even if you make it to happen, how can this ‘energy’ you expect to preserve the ‘medicinal properties’ of drug substances? Do you know ‘medicinal properties’ of drug substances are related with the structure and properties at molecular level?

When matter is converted to energy, that energy will be same, whether you make it from sulphur, nux vomica or calcarea. Once you break the inter-atomic bonds within molecules, the atoms cannto preserve the properties of molecules from where they came from. An oxygen atom will have the properties of oxygen atom only, whether it come from nux, water or any other molecule. When you divide the atoms further into subatomic particles, protons and electrons will be same, irrespective of atoms they came from. If you further divide atoms to ‘release’ energy, the energy so produced will not differ according to the atoms it originated. With this primary scientific knowledge, how could yo imagine the ‘drug energy’ of complex substance to be preserved in the ‘energy’ produced by ‘unpacking’ of matter? Please remember, the medicinal property is decided by the molecular structure and chemical properties of drug substances, not by the universal ‘atomic energy’.

You know, water contains hydrogen and oxygen atoms. But the properties of water is not exhibited by hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen coming from water or any other source will have same properties. If hydrogen is divided into protons and electrons, they will not show any property of hydrogen. Protons coming from division of any atom will be similar in properties. If we further split these subatomic particles into ‘energy’, how can you expect that energy to show the properties of water?

Medicinal properties of substances are decided by their molecular level structure an chemical properties. That cannot be preserved in the ‘energy’ generated by division of that matter into subatomic level. This is primary scientific knowledge, even any high school student knows. But homeopaths prefer to forget all science they learned, in their eagerness to justify the unscientific theories they learned in the name of homeopathy. This is a very disappointing situation

For example, Atropine is a chemical compound with formula C17H23NO3 . It acts upon biological molecules and produce various molecular errors, expressed through certain groups of symptoms. But, if we divide that atropine into carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, they will have properties entirely different from atropine. That is why i say, medicinal properties of drugs are determined by the structure and properties of molecules, not the ‘energy’ packed in them

During discussions on a homeopathic group regarding ‘active principles’ of potentized drugs, a homeopath posted: “The ingredient in a remedy is electromagnetic energy. In trituration, we make nano-particles, which means electrons are rubbed off the molecule. Those electrons are negatively charged and also charge the lactose. The lactose dissolves in water, and so the water get charged. Succussion is the amplification of that electromagnetic charge.”

When you say the electrons getting ‘rubbed off’ from the drug molecules, and ‘charge’ the lactose, and while the lactose dissolve in water the ‘water get charged’, and this ‘charge’ of water is the ‘ingredient’ of potentized medicine, acting as ‘electro-magnetic energy’, and ‘succussion’ is ‘amplification’ of that ‘charge’, a lot of questions will have to be answered.

1. How the simple ‘electrons’ ‘rubbed off’ from the ‘drug molecules’ carry the properties of complex drug molecules and transfer these properties to the lactose? According to your theory, only ‘electrons’ ‘rubbed off’ involve in activating the ‘lactose’. If so, ‘drug molecules’ have no role in this ‘charging’ process. Do you think ‘electrons’ ‘rubbed off’ from a complex molecule can represent the whole molecule, which contains different types of atoms?

2. Let us accept your theory of lactose getting charged by the ‘electrons’ ‘rubbed off’ from the drug molecules. ‘getting charged’ means, the energy level of lactose molecules are raised to a higher level. According to quantum understanding, any atom or molecules raised to a higher level would return to its ground energy state in a short time by radiating energy, once the ‘process of charging’ is stooped. If so, the lactose charged by trituration will lose its ‘energy’ it is kept for some time. Do you think triturated drugs will lose its medicinal properties if kept for some time?

3. When you say the ‘lactose’ dissolve in water and water also get charged, have you got any idea about the ‘nano-particles’ of drugs created during trituration? What would be its role, if water is getting charged by the ‘charged lactose’?

4. Now, coming to the ‘amplification’ of charges during succussion. How this amplification happens, and how can this amplification increase the medical properties?

5. What is according to you the mechanism by which this ‘charged water’ interfere in the biological process? If it is through ‘electromagnetic radiation’, is it necessary that the ‘charged water’ should be introduced into the body for therapeutic action? Why not this ‘electromagnetic radiation’ act up on the patient when kept nearby?

6. ‘Charged water’ also would return to ground level energy state by discharging ‘electromagnetic radiation’. That means, when potentized medicine would lose its medicinal properties by dissipating its extra energy when kept for some time. Do you agree?

7. When we keep two potentized medicines nearby in our pharmacy, both will be constantly discharging ‘electromagnetic radiation’. Would there be a chance for interacting of these ‘radiations? What if one drug absorbs the radiation coming from other? Or, do you think this EMR will work only when the medicine is inside the body of the patient?

8. Do you think the ‘electrons’ rubbed of during trituration and ‘charging the lactose and then water, can emit EMRs specific to those drugs? Remember, even a single drug contains diverse types of complex molecules. Do you say these electrons can impart the ‘charged water’ the ‘energy’ to emit NUX EMRs, SULPH EMRs and the like? By what mechanism?”

Proponents of ‘bio-magnetic theory of homeopathy’ say that the “key’ to how the homeopathic remedy is able to conduct its medicinal power to the living organism is: “just as nerves conduct feelings, so the biological organism’s complex bioelectric system reacts electromagnetically to exogenous entities. One magnetic field is perturbed by another, and the H bond net produces a unique bio-magnetic field that acts on the electro-immune system”.

But this theory does not agree with the molecular explanations provided by modern biochemistry regarding the mechanism of pathology and therapeutics or understandings of modern life sciences.

The ‘bio-magnetic’ theory of ‘healing’ is already in vogue among the propagandists of ‘hair transmission’, ‘photo transmission’, ‘radionics’, ‘dowsing’ and such pseudoscientific practices in the name of homeopathy. They also talk about theories like ‘biological organism’s complex bioelectric system’, ‘bio-magnetic field that acts on the electro-immune system’, ‘one magnetic field is perturbed by another’ and such things. If we agree to this theory, it would ultimately lead to the ratification of all ‘occult’ practices done under the label of homeopathy. That would not by any way help in taking homeopathy into mainstream science and scientific medical science.

There are also some ‘prominent’ modern theoreticians who propagate the concept that “homeopathy remedy makes use of a spiritual remedy, not a material one, and that its influences are transmitted beyond the physical limits of the material organism”.

How can we have a scientific dialogue with such people who practice homeopathy as ‘spiritual remedy’, ‘not material one’, ‘transmitted beyond the limits of material organism?

If homeopathy is a ‘spiritual remedy’, why should we keep it in corked bottles? How can we prevent that ‘spiritual remedy’, which is not ‘material one’ from escaping from the bottles? If it is not acting on ‘tongue or point of entry’, why should we apply that ‘spiritual remedy’ on our tongue? It it is “transmitted beyond material organism”, why should the patient take the drug into his ‘material organism? What is this ‘electro-immune system they talk about, that modern science could not so far recognize? Immune system acts through molecular interactions, not ‘electromagnetically’.  More over, they forget that ‘electro-magnetic forces’ are not ‘spiritual’ forces, but physical forces. These types of ‘spiritual electromagnetic’ explanations never help in making homeopathy a scientific medical system.

These ‘spiritual homeopaths’ always mix up homeopathy with theology and religion, dragging theism and atheism into discussions to create controversies.

One international promoter of ‘spiritual homeopathy’ even declared that “homeopathy is a religious sacrament”! He wrote that “homeopathic remedy, lodged in the pilules, is a product of the mind, the science is merely mummery”. According to him,  “radiant forces of the homeopathic remedy do indeed “escape” from the bottle, just as light “escapes” from the bulb, and some people can sometimes consciously feel those forces, and they can be detected outside the bottle”!

How can I discuss science of homeopathy with people saying “experienced practitioner can transmit the remedy spiritually”?

Practitioners of hair transmissions, photo-taransmission, dowsing, radionics and such other street occults in homeopathy would of course admire your wisdom for your “scientific” and “electromagnetic” theories, which culminates in your wonderful statement “most practiced of those found that it could be transmitted without word or action, even at great distance”! If ‘drug energy’ can be transmitted to me from long distances through a hair, nail, blood or other tissues removed from my body, and even photographs, how can I dare to throw away my hair in a garbage pit? What if somebody unknowingly deposits some toxic substances on it? How can I entrust my blood sample to a clinical lab, without fearing that they can do some mischief to me by putting some harmful medicines in my blood sample? I think I have to be very cautious to preserve my cut hair and nail without reaching the hands of my enemies!

A few months back, a lady homeopath from US came and posted an article on my page, explaining her dispensing methods. After exhaustive case taking and repertorization she selects a similimum. Then she writes the name of drug on a piece of paper and places on a table. Then she would place a glass of water on that paper and keep it there for 30 minutes to ‘potentize’ the water with medicinal energy. Then she would ask the patient to take this ‘energized’ water in teaspoon doses. She was practicing this ‘method’ for last 5 years with ‘miraculous results”! I asked her in which language I should write on the paper, and whether abbreviation is enough. She got annoyed and started educating me regarding ‘fringe science’, ‘ultra-science’ and ‘energy medicine’. She used all sorts of scientific terms from quantum science to explain her theory, and told a lot about ‘unscientificness’ of modern science. It ended in a bitter encounter of words, and she quit cursing me!

We know a lot of ‘homeopaths’ use ‘radionics machines’ to select similimum and potencies in their clinical practice. The concept behind radionics originated in the early 1900s with Albert Abrams (1864–1924), who became a millionaire by leasing radionic machines which he designed himself. Radionics also is the use of blood, hair, a signature, or other substances unique to the person as a focus to supposedly heal a patient from afar. In one form of radionics popularised by Abrams, some blood on a bit of filter paper is attached to a device Abrams called a dynamizer, which is attached by wires to a string of other devices and then to the forehead of a healthy volunteer, facing west in a dim light. By tapping on on his abdomen and searching for areas of “dullness”, disease in the donor of the blood is diagnosed by proxy. Handwriting analysis is also used to diagnose disease under this scheme. Having done this, the practitioner may use a special device known as an oscilloclast or any of a range of other devices to broadcast vibrations at the patient in order to attempt to heal them.

Albert Abrams claimed to detect such frequencies and/or cure people by matching their frequencies, and claimed them sensitive enough that he could tell someone’s religion by looking at a drop of blood. He developed thirteen devices and became a millionaire leasing his devices, and the American Medical Association described him as the “dean of gadget quacks,” and his devices were definitively proven useless by an independent investigation commissioned by Scientific American in 1924. Indeed, Abrams’ black boxes had no purpose of their own, being merely obfuscated collections of wires and electronic parts.

Radionics devices contradict principles of biology and physics, and no scientifically plausible mechanism of function is posited. In this sense, they can be described as magical in operation. No plausible biophysical basis for the “putative energy fields” has been proposed, and neither the fields themselves nor their purported therapeutic effects have been convincingly demonstrated.

No radionic device has been found efficacious in the diagnosis or treatment of any disease.

Similar to ‘hair transmissionists’, proponents of radionics also uses terms such as “frequency”, “energy”, and “vibrations’ not in its standard meaning but to describe an imputed energy type, which does not correspond to any property of energy in the scientific sense. Radionics is not based on any scientific evidence, and contradicts the principles of physics and biology and as a result it has been classed as pseudoscience and quackery by men of scientific mind set all over the world.

If any body want to ‘practice’ occult healing techniques, it is their choice. But when they link those unscientific practices with homeopathy, and conduct ‘courses’ and seminars for attracting homeopaths into it, it is a different matter. Homeopathy is a system of therapeutics. Any ‘therapeutic’ system uses one or other drug substance into the body of the patient. Nobody can practice ‘drug transmission’ in the name of homeopathy. We should be aware of the harm these people are doing to our attempts to make homeopathy accepted as part of modern scientific medical practice. Adding something that goes completely against accepted scientific knowledge system into homeopathy will create a lot of difficulties to the homeopathic profession who try it it to establish as a scientific therapeutics. These theoreticians are making homeopathy a subject of constant mockery before the scientific community. I feel very much disgusted to see even homeopaths with ‘credentials’ being part of these unscientific practices.

Until a scientific revolution happens in homeopathy, it will be a fertile land for all sorts of ‘system builders’, ‘energy healers’, ‘occult practitioners’, and all those who make their own ‘brands’,’theories’, ‘laws’, ‘charts’, ‘principles’ and ‘methods’. They will continue to conduct seminars, sell ‘theoretical’ books, amass money and misguide the budding young generation of homeopaths into total darkness and chaos. They will build groups of ‘dedicated followers’ and continue to threaten anybody who raises any questions. Homeopathy will remain a subject of ever-lasting mockery before the scientific community.

Most disappointing part of the story is that all those people promoting these unscientific streams of homeopathy are men of great ‘credentials’, recognitions’ and ‘authorities’. That UK-based ‘international’ homeopath (Kaviraj) who claims to make excellent ‘results’ even in ‘incurable’ cases by using ‘medicines’ in the eyes of photographs of patients downloaded from computer around the world is also a man of ‘great credentials’. Same with ‘masters’ of ‘hair transmission’ method in India- Dr Sahani heads many academic bodies overseeing homeopathic education in Indian homeopathic colleges! That man who sent ‘mp3 files of drugs’ toHaitialso is a revered name in international homeopathy (Peter Chappel)). ‘Five-cups -spoon’ method also is contributed by a famous Indian ‘Master’ homeopath. We cannot question them, because they are men of great credentials and positions. They are placed beyond any questioning!

Until and unless we succeed in understanding the exact active principles of homeopathic drugs, and the real mechanism of their therapeutic action, this will go on. And people will ‘follow’ the ‘foolishness’ of ‘masters’ having ‘credentials’ and ‘positions’.

All those ‘masters’ I referred above conducts seminars, write books, and are ‘followed’ by thousands of homeopaths. I was warned by such ‘followers’ not to touch their ‘masters’ which they say are sleeping lions. And I am warned that I will have no ‘place to run’ if I disturb them. But I have decided to listen only to ‘what is said’, ignoring ‘who said it’, and I believe, only that way we can make homeopathy a scientific medical system.

If anybody claims “took the mp3 files of drugs and gave the vibration of the remedy, it worked”! why should we hesitate to call them ‘unscientific’? I don’t think there is anything to ‘investigate’ in it. If a ‘homeopath’ claims he is treating ‘patients all over the world sitting in UK’, sending ‘medicinal energy’ by applying drugs in the eyes of photographs downloaded from computer, what investigation you are talking about to be conducted to call him a ‘fraud’? Same with ‘hair transmission’, dowsing’, ‘radionics’ and such things, which are beyond any doubt unscientific, as far as i am concerned. Should we swallow all these garbage to ‘prove’ that we are not prejudiced?

There is a saying in malayalam: “Even on the milk-filled udder of cow, mosquitoes relishes only blood”. There are many scientific things in ORGANON that is useful; but these people are looking for whatever unscientific things hahnemann talked about, because that only satisfies their appetite! I fear these people may argue ‘mesmerism’ is a ‘fundamental law’ of homeopathy, and those who do not believe and practice mesmerism are not real homeopaths, since hahnemann have mentioned about mesmerism in organon. And Organon is our ‘bible’!

Regarding Hahnemann’s mentioning of “mesmrism” in one of the last paragraphs of organon, it was not part his “updating the system”, and he never related with homeopathy. He mentioned about mesmerism as part of his discussions regarding “additional measures” that can be used “along” with homeopathy, such as fomentation, galvanism, mineral baths, massage, and such things. In aphorism he clearly states that “mesmerism” “differs so much in its nature from all other therapeutic agents”. That shows that hahnemann never considered “mesmerism” as part of homeopathy, which is a therapeutic system. Hahnemann happened to support ‘mesmerism’ due to his primtive state of scientific knowledge available to him at that time. Not only mesmerism, there a lot of “unscientific” observations made by hahnemann. A scientifi minded modern man can differentiate what is ‘scientific’ and what is ‘unscientific’ in hahnemann.

Anybody has the right to “explore possibilities” of “transmission of homeo drug energy from a distance”. But until your concept is proved using “scientific methods” such “exploring” has to be done on “experimental basis”, and not as a “regular practice”. It is obviously wrong, unethical and illegal to conduct seminars and course to propagate such a “system” until it is scientifically verified by an authentic scientific body, especially claiming it is part of homeopathy. According to my scientific knowledge and rational thinking, I need not wait for any experiments to call these “photo transmissions” and “drug transmissions” as unscientific absurdity.

Some ‘modern masters’ pretend that homeopathy will become a ‘medical science’ by merely sprinkling some scientific and ultra-scientific terms such as ‘genetic’, ‘quantum’, ‘embryonic’, ‘particles’, ‘vibrations’ ‘resonance’, ‘energy field’, ‘teleportation’, ‘radiations’, ‘frequency’, ‘string’ and the like here and there in their articles and lectures.

Same time they would talk about ‘unscientificness’ and ‘limitations’ of modern science.

Next moment they would explain homeopathy in terms of ‘vital force’, ‘dynamic energy’, ‘mind remedy’, ‘spiritual remedies’, ‘hair transmissions’, ‘photo-transmissions’, ‘radionics’, and such other absurd occult practices. These people make homeopathy a subject of unending laughter and mockery before the scientific community.

Every thing hahnemann said cannot be ‘scientific’. He said a lot of ‘scientific’ and ‘unscientific’ things. Remember, he was talking 200 years ago!. We should be capable of identifying what is ‘scientific’ and what is ‘unscientific’ in what hahnemann said

Now, we have enough scientific tools to verify all these things, and we should utilize them judiciously. I would never say homeopathy as such is scientific. There are a lot of unscientific garbage in it. In my opinion, ‘similia similibus curentur’ reflects an ‘objective’ reality interpreted and explained by hahnemann ‘subjectively’ in a very unscientific way. Same way, ‘potentization’ also is an ‘objective phenomenon interpreted unscientifically. I am asking to discard all those unscientific things from homeopathy, and take its scientific kernel forward.

If all these types of occult practice is being claimed to be homeopathy, real homeopaths should feel ashamed. How can we face the scientific community and talk about scientific explanation of homeopathy, especially when these ‘spiritual homeopaths’ are the ‘representative faces’ of homeopathy before the international community?

The ‘experiences’ these people vouch as ‘miracles of drug transmission through hair and photographs’ is nothing new to us. The are a lot of black magicians doing wonderful occult black magics in Indian villages, especially tribal areas, who uses hair, blood, nails, foot prints, and even ‘shadows’ of enemies to ‘send evil forces’ to harm them. Only difference is that our theoreticians claim to send ‘medicinal forces’ of potentized homeopathic drugs instead of ‘evil forces’. All those ancient occult practices existed here in the name of ‘experience the same way as present day occult homeopaths thrive. They also do good ‘business’ even now, and could produce many ‘genuine’ witnesses to authenticate their claims.

These people are not interested in real scientific understanding of homeopathy. All of them are marketing their own ‘theories’ and ‘methods’, and have built up a closed community of ardent followers around them. They fear any new wave of scientific understanding in homeopathy would sweep away their sand hills of fame and fortunes. That is why they are desperately fighting tooth and nail to resist any attempts of real scientific awareness.

By ‘scientific homeopathy’, I mean an open system of theory and practice of Homeopathy that fits to our existing scientific knowledge system, which could be verified with available scientific methods and tools, with the involvement of scientific community. At least, we have to make it a theory and practice that do not go against fundamental principles of modern science.

By ‘scientific homeopathy’, I mean a theory and practice of homeopathy that fits into the scientific paradigms of modern biochemistry, molecular biology and life sciences.

By ‘scientific homeopathy’, I mean a theory and practice of homeopathy that would agree with the scientific knowledge provided by modern physiology, pathology and therapeutics.

By scientific homeopathy’, I mean an understanding of homeopathic drugs that can be explained using the language and concepts of modern material sciences, medical science and pharmacology.

Author: Chandran Nambiar K C

I am Chandran Nambiar K C Author, REDEFINING HOMEOPATHY Managing Director, Fedarin Mialbs Private Limited Developer. SIMILIMUM ULTRA Homeopathic Software I am not a scientist, academician, scholar, professional homeopath or anybody with 'big credentials', but an old lay man, a retired government servant, who accidentally happened to fall into the deep waters of the great ocean of homeopathic knowledge during his fiery teenage years, and was destined to live a whole life exploring the mysteries of that wonderful world with unending enthusiasm. My interest in homeopathy happened very accidentally when I was only 20 years old UNDERGRADUATE ZOOLOGY student, through a constant relationship with a local practitioner who happened to be father of my classmate. I was a regular visitor in his clinic, where from I started reading BOERICKE MATERIA MEDICA and other homeopathic books, which helped me to cure myself my troublesome asthma that have been haunting me since my childhood days. I became a voracious reader of homeopathy.

2 thoughts on “‘Energy Medicine’- Breeding Ground Of All Unscientific Nonsense Theories In Homeopathy”

  1. sir ur article is very useful to student like me who is struggling in a lot of confusions regarding homeopathy .sir please answer 1 small query of mine.people belonging to diffrent transmissin fields nd their folllowers claim that their patients r treated in huge numbers and even the students going to such doctors give eg of treatment of their relatives b4 them thrugh these methods.what according to u cud be reason fr such treatment.these fields r getting huge followers bcoz they give results .please explain sir how results cud be given in these cases .

  2. It is true that many theories are invogue on the nature and action of homeopathic drugs.But so far Ok.
    Author himself says that drug action is because of the structural differences of drug molecules and biological molecules of the diseased .Thus if author accepts this theory,he has to agree that such reaction between structural entities is followed by an energy change,since every chemical reaction taking place in the universe is followed by energy change .Well,it is true that it is not related with breaking of bond to become atoms or molecules.Every molecule is associated with energy in concentrated solution,dilute solution or nano concentration level,by virtue of its structure,bond angle,bond length etc.Such energy determines the structure of a molecule.Therefore I think that your theory on the homeopathic drug action is only explained partially.
    There is no doubt about the energy change .But what extent,how and when etc,when such change takes place,is to be explained.Such things are automatically explained what is said now.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: