1. Diseases, other than those originating from genuine nutritional deficiencies and genetic abnormalities, are caused by diverse types of exogenous or endogenous pathological molecules, which inhibit the normal actions of essential biological molecules by binding to them. Exactly, it is the ‘functional groups’ of pathological molecules that bind to biological molecules and produce pathological inhibitions, which are expressed through subjective and objective symptoms we call as ‘diseases’.
2. Constituent chemical molecules of a drug substance interact with our body by binding their diverse types of ‘functional groups’ or ‘moieties’ with specific biological target molecules in our organism and modifying their actions. This interaction is determined by configurational as well as charge affinities between those functional groups and biological target molecules. It is the number of types of biologically active ‘functional groups’ or ‘moieties’ available in a drug substance that decides whether it is a ‘single’ drug or ‘multiple’ drug.
3. Different types of ‘functional groups’ of individual molecules contained in a drug substance bind to different biological target molecules, and produce different types of modifications. It is this ‘modifying’ or ‘inhibitory’ actions that produce molecular states of pathologies during drug proving, which are expressed through diverse types of subjective and objective symptoms.
4. Similar functional groups being part of different drug molecules of even different drug substances can bind to same target molecules and produce similar bio-molecular modifications and similar symptoms.
5. When a drug molecule has functional groups or moieties similar to those of a pathological molecule, they can attack same biological targets, and symptoms they produce would be similar. In such a situation, the drug molecule is said to be ‘similimum’ to that pathological molecule. Obviously, according to scientific perspective, we should understand the concept of ‘similimum’ in terms of similarity of ‘functional groups’ or ‘moieties’ of pathological molecules and drug molecules.
6. Potentization is exactly a process of controlled ‘host-guest’ interactions, by which the three-dimensional configuration of ‘functional groups’ of individual constituent molecules of drug substances (host) are imprinted into a hydrogen-bonded supra-molecular matrix of water-ethyl alcohol molecules (guest) as ‘nanocavities’.
7. These nanocavities or ‘molecular imprints’ can bind to and deactivate any functional group having configuration similar to that of original ‘host’ molecule imprinted into it. As such, a potentized drug can act as biological antidote towards any pathological molecule, if the drug and disease were capable of producing ‘similar’ symptoms, which actually mean, they contain similar ‘functional groups’.
8. I hope, scientific meaning of ‘similia similibus curentur’ is well explained here, and scientifically viable answers provided for the THREE fundamental questions of homeopathy- what happens during potentization, what are the active principles of potentized drugs, and what is the exact molecular mechanism by which potentized drugs produce a therapeutic effect. Answers to all other secondary questions could be easily evolved once you comprehend these fundamental answers.