Limitations of Perspectives of Authors Lead Them to Wrong Conclusions from Their Own Great Scientific Works

I could locate a very important research work  “Homeopathy emerging as nanomedicine” by Rajendra Prakash Upadhyay (Department of Bio-chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi, Indi a), Chaturbhuja Nayak (Central Council for Research in Homeopathy, New Delhi, India ) Published in Int J High Dilution Res 2011; 10(37): 299-310. Read the full text of original article on this link: http://www.feg.unesp.br/~ojs/index.php/ijhdr/article/view/525/551

I am quoting the ABSTRACT of their work here:
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ABSTRACT

Background: Homeopathy is a time-tested two-century old empirical system of healing. Homeopathic medicines are prepared through a characteristic process known as potentization, where serial dilutions are performed with strong strokes at each step of dilution. Homeopathy is controversial because most medicines do not contain one single molecule of the corresponding starting-substance.

Aim: To investigate a possible nanoscience mechanism of action of homeopathic medicines.

Methodology: Ultra-pure samples were prepared and were examined under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) along with selected area nanodiffraction (SAD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Also trace element analysis (TEA) for silicon was performed.

Results: Homeopathic medicines showed not to be „nothing‟, but exhibited nanoparticles and conglomerates of them, which had crystalline nature and were rich in silicon.

Conclusions: During the violent strokes involved in potentization, information arising from the serially diluted starting-substance might be encrypted by epitaxy on silicon-rich crystalline nanoparticles present in the resulting homeopathic medicine. The „size‟ of the information encrypted on nanoparticles might vary together with the degree of dilution. As homeopathic medicines exhibit healing effects, these nanoparticles along with the interfacial water on their surface might carry this information – which biological systems are able to identify – to the target. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, homeopathy might represent a nanomedicine system. Possible confirmation, however, requires further research in materials and interfacial water.

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It is an excellent work, even though I do not agree with their interpretations and conclusions. Had it been interpreted correctly, this work would have contributed a lot in the MIT concepts.

SEE THE FINAL DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS OF research paper by Rajendra Prakash Upadhyay and Chaturbhuja Nayak:

“Discussions:  The dose of homeopathic medicine a patient takes may contain few (or zero) molecules/atoms of the starting-substance, but this fact alone does not make homeopathic medicines a variety of nanomedicines [12]. Toumey [12] compared homeopathic to nanomedicines, and quoting the example of nanomedicine Aurimune®, argued that nanomedicines differ from homeopathic medicines. The major difference is the use of a known amount of medicine in case of nanomedicines compared to homeopathic medicines. In addition, gold nanoparticles in nanomedicine Aurimune® act as the carriers of the active agent to the target.

In the case of homeopathic medicines, crystalline silica (or silicon) nanoparticles (along with other trace elements leaching from the glass wall of the vial) with interfacial water on their surface may acquire the structural information of the starting-substance during the process of potentization. In medium and high potencies, which are commonly used in clinical practice, the presence of starting-source is likely to be zero but it is “immaterial”. It may be argued that what matters here is the “size” of the possible encrypted information, perhaps with the electromagnetic signature of the starting-substance. Such “size” might derive from the dilution level of the homeopathic medicine, since homeopathic medicines in different potencies exhibit different effects and properties. Furthermore, silica (or silicon) nanoparticles might also act as carriers of information. Such nanocarriers might convey the information of the starting-substance – which biological systems are able to identify – to the target, which the starting-substance molecules in themselves are not able to reach. The target, however, is unlikely to be local because homeopathy is rated a holistic therapy assumed to work by means of the immune system. It is worth to remark that various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system [13].

As homeopathic medicines might have both the “size” of the information of the diluted away starting-substance and the carriers needed to convey this information – which biological systems are able to identify – to the target, they may qualify as nanomedicines. Consequently, the nature, composition and surface features of the crystalline material (along with interfacial water) present in homeopathic medicines compared to controls have paramount importance. These must be further investigated, while keeping an eye also on possible electromagnetic emission. This investigation requires suitable developments in the fields of materials and interfacial water.

Conclusions: Three homeopathic medicines very frequently used in clinical practice were found not to be “nothing”, but exhibited high nanoparticle contents. Such nanoparticles were rich in silicon and had crystalline nature. During the strong strokes of potentization, the nanoparticles might acquire the information of the diluted away starting-source encrypted on them by means of epitaxy. As various forms of silica are known to interact with proteins and cells of the immune system, these nanoparticles (along with the interfacial water on their surface) might also act as carriers of this information to the target. The “size” of information might be related with the dilution degree of medicines. Under such possible conditions, homeopathy qualifies as a nanomedicine system not requiring high technology. For confirmation and further elaboration purposes, new research in materials and interfacial water are required”

The authrs say : “In the case of homeopathic medicines, crystalline silica (or silicon) nanoparticles (along with other trace elements leaching from the glass wall of the vial) with interfacial water on their surface may acquire the structural information of the starting-substance during the process of potentization”. This is a very important observation. But they failed to explain this ‘acquiring’ of information in terms of molecular imprinting. Could they interpret this phenmenon using the concept of molecular imprinting, and explain how these molecular imprints act as artificial binding sites for pathogenic molecules, the picture would have been entirely different. Only ‘molecular imprinting’ can explain the biological mechanism of homeopathic cure in a way fitting to the paradigms of mdern biochemistry and ‘ligand-target’ interactions.

In the absence of idea of molecular imprinting, they try to utilize the concept of “possible encrypted information, perhaps with the electromagnetic signature of the starting-substance”, which could lead to hijacking of this valuable research work by energy medicine theorists who propagate pseudoscience. The statement “the target, however, is unlikely to be local because homeopathy is rated a holistic therapy assumed to work by means of the immune system” is pregnant with such possibilities. ‘Targets are unlikely to be local’, but ‘holistic’ is a statement that destroys the scientific credibility of this great work. Concept of ‘holistic target’ instead of ‘local’ or molecular targets is nothing but an attempt to satisfy ‘vital force’ theory. The statement “must be further investigated, while keeping an eye also on possible electromagnetic emission” is also a departure from genuine scientific interpretations of this research. Explaining mechanism of drug actions in terms of ‘electromagnetic emissions’ and ‘resonance’ is a subject very dear to ‘energy medicine’ homeopaths, but it contradicts existing scientific concepts regarding biological mechanism of cure.

The conclusion that “During the strong strokes of potentization, the nanoparticles might acquire the information of the diluted away starting-source encrypted on them by means of epitaxy” shows they have no slightest inclination of molecular imprinting.

Epitaxy actually refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate, where the overlayer is in registry with the substrate. In other words, there must be one or more preferred orientations of the overlayer with respect to the substrate for this to be termed epitaxial growth. The overlayer is called an epitaxial film or epitaxial layer. The term epitaxy comes from the Greek roots epi, meaning “above”, and taxis, meaning “in ordered manner”. It can be translated “to arrange upon”. For most technological applications, it is desired that the deposited material form a crystalline overlayer that has one well-defined orientation with respect to the substrate crystal structure.

By explaining potentization in terms of ‘epitaxy’ instead of ‘molecular imprinting’, the authors obviously misinterprets their scientific observations. In epitaxy, it is drug molecules that are carried- not ‘information” of drug molecules. Information can be carried in the absence of drug molecules only by molecular imprinting. Epitaxy is about carrying a layer of drug molecules -not information- on a carrier matrix, which cannot happen in high dilutions.

I request the authors to re-interpret their observations in the light of ‘molecular imprinting’, which would make their work a great historical milestone in the scientific understanding of homeopathy

Author: Chandran Nambiar K C

I started practicing homeopathy in 1970, when I was 20 years old and studying for final year of BSc (Zoology) course. My interest in homeopathy happened very accidentally, through a constant relationship with a local practitioner who happened to be father of my classmate. I was a regular visitor in his clinic, where from I started reading BOERICKE MATERIA MEDICA and other homeopathic books, which helped me to cure myself my troublesome asthma that have been haunting me since my childhood days. I became a voracious reader of homeopathy. I was also deeply involved in studying marxism and dialectical materialism during my college days, which attracted me to political activities. MARXISM and HOMEOPATHY became two essential parts of my intellectual and practical life, which still continues so. Even though I joined DHMS course in a karnataka homeopathic college, I could not continue it due to my intense involvement in revolutionary political activities that resulted in jail life and a lot of criminal cases. Once that phase was over, I took a diploma in veterinary science and became a livestock inspector in animal husbandry department under govt of kerala. I have been continuing my study and practice of homeopathy all through these years. Since CCH act came into force only in 1976, and it contained provisions allowing existing practitioners to continue, my homeopathic practice went smoothly in parallel with my government job. In 1987, co-operating with some local homeopaths and social activists, I started Kannur District Homeopathic Hospital Sociey, which established a chain of hospitals and homeopathic clinics in different parts of Kannur district. After a few years I had to leave the society for some political reasons, and I established a 100 bedded well equipped homeopathic hospital in Taliparamba, employing a number of prominent homeopaths. That was ended up as a financial disaster for me due to many reasons, including my lack of skills as a money manager, and I was compelled to close down my dream project with in a short period. I lost huge money I invested, lost my reputation, and it pulled me into a debt trap. I learned a lot of valuabl lessons from this failure- about life, human psychology, relationships, and above all, about myself. I realized failure is the greatest teacher, if you are prepared learn from it. I learned how will power and determination to win will help us come back into life as a phoenix from our own ashes. I learned, one does not fail unless he stops fighting and accepts failure. My failure and the hardships that followed has moulded my personality in such a way that I can now withstand any disaster and fight back. I tell you, you will not know what life really is, unless you miserably fail at least once in your life. By this time, I left my government job also, and settled as a full time homeopathic practitioner. By this practice, I could repair my earlier financial losses, and establish well in life. It was during this period that I felt the need of developing a simple and user-friendly homeopathic software, that resulted in the evolution of SIMILIMUM, which was later upgraded into SIMILIMUM ULTRA. Similimum Ultra was well accepted by the profession, and it collected good revenues which continues even today. I stopped my practice a few years back , and concentrated in the study and research activities to evolve scientifically viable explanations to the so-called riddles of homeopathy. This unrelenting study resulted in MIT or Molecular Imprints Therapeutics, which provides a scientific and rational explanation for homeopathy. I started a homeopathic discussion group on facebook called HOMEOPATHY FOR TOTAL CURE, which has more than 35000 homeopaths as members. By this work on facebook, I could establish close relationship with many homeopaths around the world. It goes on. I could successfully convert facebook as my office and work place, from where I propagate my MIT ideas, co-ordinate my works for homeopathic community, and sell my Similimum Ultra Software. My years of hardwork in search of HOW HOMEOPATHY WORKS ultimately resulted in the publication of a book titled REDEFINING HOMEOPATHY (3000 pages, 3 volumes, hard bound, Rs 6000), in which I have compiled my articles regarding my scientific explanations of basic principles of homeopathy. These ideas are called MIT or MOLECULAR IMPRINTS THERAPEUTICS. MIT is now included in the syllabus of MD (HOM) course of prestigious DY PATIL DEEMED UNIVERSITY, PUNE, INDIA. Research department of SARADA KRISHNA HOMEOPATHIC COLLEGE, Kulashekharam, Tamilnadu, India, the only NAC accredited homeopathy college in India, has recently taken up certain reserch projects for proving the scientific explanations proposed by MIT. Based on MIT perspective of homeopathy, I had developed an MIT PROTOCOL for scientific homeopathy, and initiated a project for establishing a chain of MIT NETWORK CLINICS all over India, where MIT PROTOCOL will be practiced. More over, I have developed a whole range of 351 MIT FORMULATIONS, which are disease-specific combinations of post-avogadro diluted homeopathy drugs. NOW I AM IN 71st YEAR OF MY LIFE, AND STILL LOOKING FOR NEW HORRIZONS!

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