Role of PEPSINUM 30 in the Treatment of  Gastric  Ulcers, Gastritis, Esophagitis, Deep Ulcers of Buccal Cavity, Esophgeal Carcinoma Etc.

Pepsin is a protein-degrading or proteolytic enzyme in the digestive system. Pepsin is released by the cells in the stomach. This enzyme degrades food proteins into peptides to facilitate absorption. Pepsin is a digestive protease, a member of the aspartate protease family. During the process of digestion, pepsin severs the links between particular types of amino acids, collaborate to break down dietary proteins into their components, i.e., peptides and amino acids, which can be readily absorbed by the intestinal lining. Pepsin is most efficient in cleaving peptide bonds between hydrophobic and preferably aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine.

Pepsin is expressed as a pro-form zymogen, pepsinogen, whose primary structure has an additional 44 amino acids. In the stomach, chief cells release pepsinogen. This zymogen is activated by hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is released from parietal cells in the stomach lining. The hormone gastrin and the vagus nerve trigger the release of both pepsinogen and HCl from the stomach lining when food is ingested. Hydrochloric acid creates an acidic environment, which allows pepsinogen to unfold and cleave itself in an autocatalytic fashion, thereby generating pepsin (the active form). Pepsin cleaves the 44 amino acids from pepsinogen to create more pepsin.

Pepsin is most active in acidic environments between 37°C and 42°C. Accordingly, its primary site of synthesis and activity is in the stomach (pH 1.5 to 2). Pepsin exhibits maximal activity at pH 2.0 and is inactive at pH 6.5 and above, however pepsin is not fully denatured or irreversibly inactivated until pH 8.0. The stability of pepsin at high pH has significant implications on disease attributed to laryngopharyngeal reflux. Pepsin remains in the larynx following a gastric reflux event. At the mean pH of the laryngopharynx pH = 6.8 pepsin would be inactive but could be reactivated upon subsequent acid reflux events resulting in damage to local tissues.

Pepsin is one of the primary causes of mucosal damage during laryngopharyngeal reflux.  Pepsin remains in the larynx pH 6.8 following a gastric reflux event. While enzymatically inactive in this environment, pepsin would remain stable and could be reactivated upon subsequent acid reflux events. Exposure of laryngeal mucosa to enzymatically active pepsin, but not irreversibly inactivated pepsin or acid, results in reduced expression of protective proteins and thereby increases laryngeal susceptibility to damage.

Pepsin may also cause mucosal damage during weakly acidic or non-acid gastric reflux. Weak or non-acid reflux is correlated with reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. Under non-acid conditions (neutral pH), pepsin is internalized by cells of the upper airways such as the larynx and hypopharynx by a process known as receptor-mediated endocytosis.  Upon cellular uptake, pepsin is stored in intracellular vesicles of low pH at which its enzymatic activity would be restored. Pepsin is retained within the cell for up to 24 hours. Such exposure to pepsin at neutral pH and endoyctosis of pepsin causes changes in gene expression associated with inflammation, which underlies signs and symptoms of reflux, and tumor progression. This and other research implicates pepsin in carcinogenesis attributed to gastric reflux.

Pepsin is found in the saliva of persons suffering from gastro-esophageal reflux, which causes persistent corroding of buccal mucosa, leading to deep ulcers of mouth cavity.

Commercial pepsin is extracted from the glandular layer of hog stomachs. It is a component of rennet used to curdle milk during the manufacture of cheese. Pepsin is used for a variety of applications in food manufacturing: to modify and provide whipping qualities to soy protein and gelatin, to modify vegetable proteins for use in nondairy snack items, to make precooked cereals into instant hot cereals, and to prepare animal and vegetable protein hydrolysates for use in flavoring foods and beverages. It is used in the leather industry to remove hair and residual tissue from hides and in the recovery of silver from discarded photographic films by digesting the gelatin layer that holds the silver. Pepsin was historically an additive of  chewing gum. It also gave name to Pepsi-Cola, originally formulated with pepsin and cola nuts.

PEPSINUM is the homeopathic preparation prepared by potentizing PEPSIN. In potentized forms, it contains MOLECULAR IMPRINTS of pepsin molecules. Potentized PEPSINUM above 12C could be used in the treatment of GERD, to heal the mucosal damage caused laryngopharyngeal reflux. It  is also useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers, esophagitis, esophageal ulcerations and strictures, esophageal and laryngeal carcinoma etc.

Personally, I have regularly used PEPSINUM 30 successfully in the treatment of GASTRITIS, GASTRIC ULCER and ESOPHAGITIS and deep ulcers of buccal cavity.

Author: Chandran Nambiar K C

I started practicing homeopathy in 1970, when I was 20 years old and studying for final year of BSc (Zoology) course. My interest in homeopathy happened very accidentally, through a constant relationship with a local practitioner who happened to be father of my classmate. I was a regular visitor in his clinic, where from I started reading BOERICKE MATERIA MEDICA and other homeopathic books, which helped me to cure myself my troublesome asthma that have been haunting me since my childhood days. I became a voracious reader of homeopathy. I was also deeply involved in studying marxism and dialectical materialism during my college days, which attracted me to political activities. MARXISM and HOMEOPATHY became two essential parts of my intellectual and practical life, which still continues so. Even though I joined DHMS course in a karnataka homeopathic college, I could not continue it due to my intense involvement in revolutionary political activities that resulted in jail life and a lot of criminal cases. Once that phase was over, I took a diploma in veterinary science and became a livestock inspector in animal husbandry department under govt of kerala. I have been continuing my study and practice of homeopathy all through these years. Since CCH act came into force only in 1976, and it contained provisions allowing existing practitioners to continue, my homeopathic practice went smoothly in parallel with my government job. In 1987, co-operating with some local homeopaths and social activists, I started Kannur District Homeopathic Hospital Sociey, which established a chain of hospitals and homeopathic clinics in different parts of Kannur district. After a few years I had to leave the society for some political reasons, and I established a 100 bedded well equipped homeopathic hospital in Taliparamba, employing a number of prominent homeopaths. That was ended up as a financial disaster for me due to many reasons, including my lack of skills as a money manager, and I was compelled to close down my dream project with in a short period. I lost huge money I invested, lost my reputation, and it pulled me into a debt trap. I learned a lot of valuabl lessons from this failure- about life, human psychology, relationships, and above all, about myself. I realized failure is the greatest teacher, if you are prepared learn from it. I learned how will power and determination to win will help us come back into life as a phoenix from our own ashes. I learned, one does not fail unless he stops fighting and accepts failure. My failure and the hardships that followed has moulded my personality in such a way that I can now withstand any disaster and fight back. I tell you, you will not know what life really is, unless you miserably fail at least once in your life. By this time, I left my government job also, and settled as a full time homeopathic practitioner. By this practice, I could repair my earlier financial losses, and establish well in life. It was during this period that I felt the need of developing a simple and user-friendly homeopathic software, that resulted in the evolution of SIMILIMUM, which was later upgraded into SIMILIMUM ULTRA. Similimum Ultra was well accepted by the profession, and it collected good revenues which continues even today. I stopped my practice a few years back , and concentrated in the study and research activities to evolve scientifically viable explanations to the so-called riddles of homeopathy. This unrelenting study resulted in MIT or Molecular Imprints Therapeutics, which provides a scientific and rational explanation for homeopathy. I started a homeopathic discussion group on facebook called HOMEOPATHY FOR TOTAL CURE, which has more than 35000 homeopaths as members. By this work on facebook, I could establish close relationship with many homeopaths around the world. It goes on. I could successfully convert facebook as my office and work place, from where I propagate my MIT ideas, co-ordinate my works for homeopathic community, and sell my Similimum Ultra Software. My years of hardwork in search of HOW HOMEOPATHY WORKS ultimately resulted in the publication of a book titled REDEFINING HOMEOPATHY (3000 pages, 3 volumes, hard bound, Rs 6000), in which I have compiled my articles regarding my scientific explanations of basic principles of homeopathy. These ideas are called MIT or MOLECULAR IMPRINTS THERAPEUTICS. MIT is now included in the syllabus of MD (HOM) course of prestigious DY PATIL DEEMED UNIVERSITY, PUNE, INDIA. Research department of SARADA KRISHNA HOMEOPATHIC COLLEGE, Kulashekharam, Tamilnadu, India, the only NAC accredited homeopathy college in India, has recently taken up certain reserch projects for proving the scientific explanations proposed by MIT. Based on MIT perspective of homeopathy, I had developed an MIT PROTOCOL for scientific homeopathy, and initiated a project for establishing a chain of MIT NETWORK CLINICS all over India, where MIT PROTOCOL will be practiced. More over, I have developed a whole range of 351 MIT FORMULATIONS, which are disease-specific combinations of post-avogadro diluted homeopathy drugs. NOW I AM IN 71st YEAR OF MY LIFE, AND STILL LOOKING FOR NEW HORRIZONS!

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