Responding to my proposition that MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE could be a superior substitute to LACTOSE and CANE SUGAR as dispensing vehicles for potentized homeopathic drugs, many friends asked me to provide more details regarding the safety studies of MCCP. Hence I am posting here World Health Organization Report on Microcrystalline Cellulose, prepared by the forty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), World Health Organization, Geneva 1998. First draft prepared  by Dr J.B. Greig, Department of Health, Skipton House, 80 London Road, London, SE1 6LW, UK

This report contains a detailed overview, evaluation and comments upon hundreds of studies done regarding Biochemical aspects (Absorption, distribution and excretion), Acute toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose in animals, Short-term toxicity studies, Long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, Reproductive toxicity studies, Special studies on embryotoxicity and teratogenicity, Special studies on genotoxicity, Special studies on sensitization, Special studies on skin and eye irritation, Special studies on effects of cellulose fibre on tumour growth,  Toxicity consequent to substance abuse,  Changes in gastrointestinal function and nutrient balance etc with complete references.

“The Committee concluded that the toxicological data from humans  and animals provided no evidence that the ingestion of  microcrystalline cellulose can cause toxic effects in humans when used  in foods according to good manufacturing practice”.

The committee concludes the report with the following statement:

“Persorption of microcrystalline cellulose was reported in various species, which included rats, in early studies. A recent study in which a special fine particle size preparation of microcrystalline  cellulose (median diameter of particles 6 µm) was administered orally to rats (5 g/kg bw per day) for 90 days has failed to confirm the earlier observations. In this study precautions were taken to ensure that, at autopsy, there was no cross-contamination of the tissues with fine particulate matter.

In various parenteral studies of the acute toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose in animals there have been signs consistent with a tissue response to foreign particles. Similarly, microcrystalline cellulose has been associated with the formation of granulomas in human lung when it has been injected intravenously during drug abuse. No such lesions have been described as a consequence of oral ingestion of microcrystalline cellulose by rats or humans.

In 90-day toxicity tests during which microcrystalline cellulose was administered to rats in the diet at concentrations of 2.5 to 50%, increased consumption of food to compensate for the content of this material was observed. Although this may have some effects on mineral absorption there was, in general, no compound-related systemic toxicity. The NOEL exceeded 50 g/kg diet, at which dose level the mean intakes of microcrystalline cellulose by male and female rats were 3.8 and 4.4 g/kg bw per day, respectively.

A two-year feeding study of microcrystalline cellulose in rats was brought to the attention of the Committee. Despite a lack of evidence of toxic effects, the Committee considered that the execution and reporting of the study were not adequate to identify a NOEL.

In vitro and  in vivo genotoxicity studies were negative.

In a three-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats that had been reviewed by an earlier Committee, there were some effects of using 30% microcrystalline cellulose in the diet; these had been considered to be a consequence of the quantity of material reducing the energy density of the diet. However, in recent embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies in rats there was no evidence of compound-related effects at dietary levels up to 50 g of microcrystalline cellulose per kg diet (equal to 4.6 g/kg bw per day), given on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy.

In some human studies there have been reports of alterations to gastrointestinal function following ingestion of microcrystalline cellulose. The changes do not appear to be related to systemic toxicity”

Microcrystalline cellulose is a purified, partially depolymerzed cellulose prepared by treating alpha-cellulose, obtained as a pulp from fibrous plant material, with mineral acids. The degree of polymerization is typically less than 400. Not more than 10% of the material has a particle size of less than 5 nanometer. Insoluble in water, ethanol, ether and dilute mineral acids. Slightly soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.

Microcrystalline cellulose (C6H10O5)n is refined wood pulp. It is a white, free-flowing powder. Chemically, it is an inert substance, is not degraded during digestion and has no appreciable absorption. In large quantities it provides dietary bulk and may lead to a laxative effect.

Microcrystalline cellulose is a commonly used excipient in the pharmaceutical industry. It has excellent compressibility properties and is used in solid dose forms, such as tablets. Tablets can be formed that are hard, but dissolve quickly. Microcrystalline cellulose is the same as cellulose, except that it meets USP standards.

It is also found in many processed food products, and may be used as an anti-caking agent, stabilizer, texture modifier, or suspending agent among other uses. According to the Select Committee on GRAS Substances, microcrystalline cellulose is generally regarded as safe when used in normal quantities.

The most common form is used in vitamin supplements or tablets. It is also used in plaque assays for counting viruses, as an alternative to carboxymethylcellulose.

A naturally occurring polymer, it is composed of glucose units connected by a 1-4 beta glycosidic bond. These linear cellulose chains are bundled together as microfibril spiralled together in the walls of plant cell. Each microfibril exhibits a high degree of three-dimensional internal bonding resulting in a crystalline structure that is insoluble in water and resistant to reagents. There are, however, relatively weak segments of the microfibril with weaker internal bonding. These are called amorphous regions; some argue that they are more accurately called dislocations, because of the single-phase structure of microfibrils. The crystalline region is isolated to produce microcrystalline cellulose.

Approved within the European Union as a thickener, stabilizer or emulsifiers microcrystalline cellulose was granted the E number E460(i) with basic cellulose given the number E460.

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is pure partially depolymerized cellulose synthesized from α-cellulose precursor. The MCC can be synthesized by different processes such as reactive extrusion, enzyme mediated, steam explosion and acid hydrolysis. The later process can be done using mineral acids such as H2SO4, HCl and HBr as well as ionic liquids. The role of these reagents is to destroy the amorphous regions remaining the crystalline domains. The degree of polymerization is typically less than 400. The MCC particles with size lower than 5 µm must not be more than 10%. The MCC is a valuable additive in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. Different properties of MCC are measured to qualify its suitability to such utilization, namely particle size, density, compressibility index, angle of repose, powder porosity, hydration swelling capacity, moisture sorption capacity, moisture content, crystallinity index, crystallite size and mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are also important to predict the thermal behavior of the MCC upon heat stresses.

Microcrystalline cellulose is a widely used excipient, an inert substance used in many pill and tablet formulations. As an insoluble fiber, microcrystalline cellulose is not absorbed into the blood stream, so it cannot cause toxicity when taken orally. In fact, it is so inert it is often used as a placebo in controlled drug studies. However, some side effects have been noted in animal studies, although usually at much higher dosages than would be normal for a human subject.

World Health Organization Report on Microcrystalline Cellulose

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION- SAFETY EVALUATION OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS – WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES 40-  Prepared by: The forty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).  World Health Organization, Geneva 1998 –  First draft prepared     by Dr J.B. Greig Department of Health, Skipton House, 80 London Road, London, SE1 6LW, UK


Microcrystalline cellulose was evaluated at the fifteenth, seventeenth and nineteenth meetings of the Committee (see Annex 1, references 26, 32 and 38). At the nineteenth meeting an ADI “not specified” was allocated. In the light of concern about possible persorption and consequential adverse effects of fine particles, the substance was re-evaluated at the present meeting.


Biochemical aspects-  Absorption, distribution and excretion


Four rats were fed 14C-labelled microcrystalline cellulose at 10 or 20% of their diet. No evidence of degradation or digestion was noted. Faecal recoveries of radioactivity ranged from 96-104% and were complete for all labelled material. No radioactivity appeared in the urine (Baker, 1966).

A study was specifically designed to investigate the possibility that persorption of microcrystalline cellulose might induce toxicological effects. Groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley CD rats (20 per group) from Charles River Laboratories were administered, by gavage, suspensions of a special fine particle-size microcrystalline cellulose (median particle size 6 µm). The rats were dosed orally daily for 90 consecutive days at a level of 5000 mg/kg bw per day by means of a 25% suspension in tap water. The animals were killed on study days 91-94 and necropsies were carried out under conditions that reduced the possibility of contamination of tissues with fine particulates. The birefringent microcrystalline cellulose particles were not detected in any organ or tissue, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, liver, lung, spleen and brain. The size limit for detection of the particles was considered to be < 1 µm (Kotkoskie  et al., 1996; FMC Corporation N.V., 1996


One human subject received 150 g of microcrystalline cellulose daily in two portions for a 15-day adaptation period. He then received 14C-labelled microcrystalline cellulose (47.6 µCi) in two portions on one day. Supplementation of the diet with unlabelled microcrystalline cellulose continued for 10 days. Twenty-four-hour faecal and urine collections were examined for radioactivity. No radioactivity appeared in the urine or in the expired CO2. All administered radioactivity (98.9 ± 3.0%) was recovered from the faeces within two days (Baker, 1968).

Metabolism of a preparation of 14C-labelled cellulose by four volunteers has been shown to be increased by the consumption, for a period of 3 months, of an additional 7 g/per day of dietary fibre. In six subjects with an ileostomy, the cumulative excretion of 14CO2 was lower than in controls. In two constipated subjects metabolism appeared to be more extensive and occurred over a longer period (Walters  et al., 1989).

Examination of the stools of one male and one female patient given 30 g microcrystalline cellulose as dry flour or gel for 5´ weeks showed the presence of undegraded material of the same birefringence as the original microcrystalline cellulose administered. No significant effects on the human gastrointestinal tract were noted during the administration (Tusing  et al., 1964).

Most (87%) of the radiolabel associated with 131I-labelled alpha-cellulose fibres (retained by a sieve with pores of 1 mm diam) was excreted by 4 male and 4 female volunteers within 5 days of ingestion. Less than 2% of the faecal radiolabel was unbound; urinary excretion of unbound radio-iodine accounted for another 1.9% of the total dose (Carryer  et al., 1982).

Other studies have been carried out to demonstrate the relationship between persorbability and size and consistency of granules. Using quartz sand, the upper limit for persorbability was shown to be 150 µm. Starch granules must be structurally largely intact to possess the property of persorbability. Persorbed starch granules may be eliminated in the urine, pulmonary alveoli, peritoneal cavity, cerebrospinal fluid, via lactating milk and transplacentally (Volkheimer  et al., 1968).

In another study, dyed plant foods (oatmeal, creamed corn) were fed to human subjects, and blood and urine were examined for coloured fibres. Dyed fibres were shown to be present (Schreiber, 1974).

Lycopodium spores and pollen grains have also been shown to be persorbed by humans (Linskens & Jorde, 1974).

Mean intake of dietary microcrystalline cellulose in the USA has been estimated to range from 2.7 g/person per day (children 2 years of age) to 5.1 g/person per day (young adult males). For heavy consumer intake of microcrystalline cellulose (90th percentile) the values are 5.4 to 10.2 g/person per day for the same age groups (CanTox Inc., 1993).

The mean intake of dietary microcrystalline cellulose in the United Kingdom has been estimated as 0.65 g/person per day. The highest mean intake, 0.90 g/person per day, was for children aged 10-11 (the youngest group for which data were available). For heavy consumer intake of microcrystalline cellulose (90th percentile) the values ranged from 1.13 g/person per day for adults age 16-24 to 1.83 g/person per day for males age 10-11 (Egan & Heimbach, 1994).

Persorption in animal species:

Rats, pigs and dogs were used to study the persorption of microcrystalline cellulose. The animals were not fed for 12 hours prior to oral administration of the test compound. Rats, dogs and pigs were given 0.5, 140 and 200 g, respectively, of the test compound. Venous blood was taken from the animals 1-2 hours after administration of the test compound, and examined for particles. Persorbed particles were demonstrated in the blood of all three species. The average maximum diameter for persorbed particles was greater in rats than in dogs or pigs (Pahlke & Friedrich, 1974)

Acute toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose in animals

No deaths in 10 rats of each sex administered 5000 mg/kg of Avicel RCN-15.

No deaths in 5 rats of each sex administered 5000 mg/kg of Avicel AC-815.

No deaths in 5 rats of each sex treated with 2000 mg/kg of Avicel RCN-15.

No deaths in 5 rats of each sex treated with 2000 mg/kg of Avicel AC-815.

No deaths in 5 rats of each sex exposed to 5.35 mg/litre of Avicel AC-815.

In the studies summarized in Table 1, there was no evidence of toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose preparations administered either orally or dermally to rats at doses of 5000 or 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The observations seen at necropsy in animals treated  intraperitoneally with Cellan 300 at 3160 mg/kg bw are consistent with an irritant reaction caused by the presence of foreign material. An inhalation toxicity study showed only transient effects at a concentration of 5.35 mg/litre.

Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single oral dose, by stomach tube, of 10.0, 31.6, 100, 316, 1000 or 3160 mg/kg bw of a suspension of Cellan 300 (refined alpha-cellulose) in either  distilled water or Mazola corn oil. The animals were observed for 7 days following administration. No differences were observed among the groups as regards the average body weight, appearance and behavior  compared to untreated rats. No observable gross pathology was revealed  at autopsy in animals dosed with either suspension. Therefore, the  acute oral LD50 was >3160 mg/kg (Pallotta, 1959).

Similar single doses of refined alpha-cellulose were given i.p. in distilled water suspension to five male rats. During 7 days observation there were no abnormalities in the rats given 316 mg/kg bw or less. At 1000 and 3160 mg/kg bw inactivity, laboured respiration and ataxia were observed 10 min after administration and, at 3160 mg/kg bw, ptosis and sprawling of the limbs were observed. These  animals appeared normal after 24 hours and for the remainder of the  observation period. At sacrifice body weights were higher than normal and gross autopsy revealed adhesions between the liver, diaphragm and peritoneal wall and congestion of the kidneys. Masses resembling   unabsorbed compound were also observed and these were found to a small extent in the mesentery of the animals administered 316 mg/kg bw.

There were no deaths and therefore the acute i.p. LD50 was >3160 mg/kg bw (Pallotta, 1959).

Ten male and ten female Sprague-Dawley rats fasted overnight were  fed Avicel RCN-15 (a mixture of 85% microcrystalline cellulose with 15% guar gum) at a dose level of 5000 mg/kg bw mixed with parmesan cheese. Six of ten males and five of ten females consumed the mixture within 24 hours. After a 14-day period during which all rats gained  weight normally they were killed. There were no gross lesions at necropsy. Under the specified conditions of administration the LD50 was >5000 mg/kg bw (Freeman, 1991a).

An acute inhalation toxicity study using a preparation of Avicel AC-815 (composed of 85% microcrystalline cellulose and 15% calcium  alginate) with mass median aerodynamic diameter of 8.48-8.61 µm (range of measures) was dispersed and delivered at a mean concentration of  5.35 mg/litre in a nose-only inhalation exposure chamber to 5 male and 5 female Crl:CDBR VAF Plus rats for a period of 4 hours. The rats were observed over the 14 days after removal from the chamber. The only signs of toxicity were on removal from the chamber and consisted of  chromodacryorrhea, chromorhinorrhea and, in one male rat, decreased  locomotion; these signs had resolved by the next day. After 14 days no gross lesions were observed at necropsy (Signorin, 1996)

Short-term toxicity studies


Groups of four male rats were kept on diets containing 0.25, 2.5 or 25% of various edible celluloses for 3 months. No differences were observed among the groups with regard to growth and faecal output. Histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract revealed no treatment-related abnormalities (Frey  et al., 1928).

Three groups of five male rats received 0.5 or 10% microcrystalline cellulose in their diet for 8 weeks. Growth was comparable to controls but the 10% group showed slightly lower body  weights. Haematology, serum chemistry and vitamin B1 levels in blood and faeces showed no differences from controls (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., 1966).

Groups of five male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 5, 10 or 20% of acid-washed cellulose in their diet during three consecutive nutrient balance trials over a period of 17 days. Absorption of magnesium and zinc were significantly lower in the animals that were receiving the 10 and 20% cellulose diets. Histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract revealed increased mitotic activity and the presence of increased numbers of neutrophils in crypt epithelial cells, particularly of the duodenum and jejunum (Gordon  et al., 1983).

A mixture of four types of Elceme (in the ratio of 1:1:1:1) was fed to groups of Wistar rats for 30 days at a dietary level of 50%,  and for 90 days at a dietary level of 10% (Elceme is a  microcrystalline cellulose, and the four types are identified by particle size, namely, 1-50 (powder), 1-100 (powder), 1-150 (fibrillar), 90-250 (granulate)). All test animals were observed for food intake and weight gain. For animals in the 10% group, urinalysis,  haematological tests and serum biochemical tests were carried out at weeks 6 and 13 of the test. A complete autopsy including  histopathology was carried out at the end of the study. Animals in the 50% group were subjected to a persorption test, on the last day of the  study, by addition of a cellulose staining dye (Renal, Wine-red) to  the food of the test animals at a level equivalent to 5% of the Elceme. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after administration of the diet, and a careful histological examination was made of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, liver, kidney and heart for stained particles.

Animals in the 10% group gained significantly less weight than  those in the control group; the marked decrease commenced in the third or fourth week of the study. Food intake was similar in test and  control groups. Urinalysis, haematological values and biochemical values were similar for test and control group 1. At autopsy some ofthe rats on the test diet had distended stomachs, which often contained considerable amounts of the test diet. The absolute liver and kidney weights and the ratio of the weight of these organs to brain weight was increased in test animals when compared with control animals. No compound-related pathology was reported. Animals in the 50% group showed considerable less weight gain than control animals in spite of a marked increase in food consumption. No persorption of dyed fibres was observed (Ferch, 1973a,b).

Randomly bred rats of both sexes were divided into groups that  received a control diet or the control diet with 330 mg/kg microcrystalline cellulose for a period of 6 months. Six rats in each group were then killed, their organs were examined, and tissues were taken for histopathology. No effects of the treatment were observed (Yartsev  et al., 1989).

Groups of Crl: CD(R) BR/VAF/Plus rats (20/sex per group) were administered 0 (control), 25 000 or 50 000 mg/kg Avicel RCN-15 in the diet for 90 days. A few test animals were noted as having  chromodacryorrhea/ chromorhinorrhea, but this was not considered to be   biologically significant. In some early weeks the rats increased diet consumption, probably to allow for the increased dietary fibre content. Body weight gain was unaffected. During the study and at necropsy there was no evidence of treatment-related changes. Clinical chemistry, haematology and organ weights were unaffected by treatment. Histopathology of 34 organs or tissues, including gastrointestinal tract and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the ileum, provided no evidence of toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose. The calculated  daily consumption of microcrystalline cellulose was 3769 mg/kg bw per day for males and 4446 mg/kg bw per day for females. The author noted that the NOEL exceeded 50 000 mg/kg diet (Freeman, 1992a).

Groups of Sprague-Dawley CD rats (20 rats/dose per sex) from Charles River Laboratories were administered 0 (control), 25 000 or 50000 mg/kg Avicel CL-611 in the diet for 90 days. (Avicel CL-611 orAvicel(R) Cellulose Gel is composed of 85% microcrystalline cellulose and 15% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose). There were no differences in weight gain of the males; a body weight gain decrement in females was attributed to a decreased caloric intake. No adverse  effects attributable to the treatment were observed. At necropsy organ  weights of the test groups were normal other than changes to adrenals of males receiving 50 000 mg/kg and to absolute brain and kidney weights in females receiving 25 000 mg/kg, but these were not  attributed to the treatment. Histopathology of 36 organs or tissues  from the control and high-dose groups, including gastrointestinal tract and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of the ileum, provided no evidence of toxicity of the microcrystalline cellulose. The mean  nominal consumptions, averaged over weekly periods, of Avicel CL-611  by males and females of the top-dose groups ranged from 2768 to 5577 and 3673 to 6045 mg/kg bw per day, respectively (Freeman, 1994a).

Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was used as a positive control  in a short-term toxicity study (approximately 13 weeks) of Cellulon, a  cellulose fibre. Sprague-Dawley Crl:CB (SD) BR rats, 20 rats/sex per group, received a diet containing 0, 5 or 10% of the appropriate fibre ad libitum. Animals were checked daily, and body weights and food consumption were monitored weekly. Haematology (10 parameters) and clinical chemistry (14 parameters) were performed on blood samples taken from 10 rats/sex per group. All animals were necropsied, and gross observations and the weights of liver, testes with epididymes, adrenals and kidneys were recorded. Histological examination was  carried out on tissue sections from control and high-dose groups.

Food consumption was increased in the groups fed cellulose fibre, although there were no differences in body weight between the fibre-fed and control groups. This effect was attributed to the altered nutritional value of the diet. From the haematology and  clinical chemistry there was only one significant difference of   microcrystalline cellulose group from the control value; this was in  the group of female rats fed 5% microcrystalline cellulose in which there was an elevation of the haematocrit. There was no evidence of a  dose response.

Study of the necropsy results and the histological observations  indicate that there was no evidence of any treatment-related effects of microcrystalline cellulose during the 13-week feeding study in rats  at either 5 or 10% in the diet (Schmitt  et al., 1991).

Groups of Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats (20 rats/dose per sex) from Charles River Laboratories were administered, by gavage, suspensions  of a special, fine particle size, microcrystalline cellulose (median particle size 6 µm). The dose levels were 0 (control), 500, 2500 or  5000 mg/kg per day as a 25% suspension in tap water. Dosing was   performed daily for 90 consecutive days. No treatment-related deaths occurred during the study and the only treatment-related clinical sign (pale faeces) was not attributed to toxicity. There were no toxicologically significant effects in treated animals with respect to body weight, absolute and relative organ weights (5 organs weighed), food consumption, clinical chemistry measurements, haematology measurements or opthalmoscopic examinations. In animals that has received 5000 mg/kg per day there were no treatment-related lesions detected histopathologically (in 36 tissues including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, liver, lung, spleen and brain) nor was there any macroscopic or microscopic finding of microemboli or granulomatous  inflammatory lesions (Kotkoskie  et al., 1996).

Long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity studies


Three groups of 50 male and 50 female rats received in their die  for 72 weeks either 30% ordinary cellulose or dry microcrystalline cellulose or micro-crystalline cellulose gel. Appearance and behavior was comparable in all groups. No adverse effects were noted. The body weights of males given microcrystalline cellulose gel were higher than  those of the controls. Food efficiency, survival and haematology were comparable in all groups. The liver and kidney weights of males receiving microcrystalline cellulose gel were higher than the controls. Gross and histopathology showed some dystrophic calcification of renal tubules in females on microcrystalline  cellulose but all other organs appeared unremarkable. Tumour incidence  did not differ between the groups (Hazleton Labs, 1963).

The Committtee was aware of a study in which a microcrystalline  cellulose preparation, of which 90% of the particles had a diameter   < 20 µm, was fed to male and female rats at 0 (control), 30, 100 or 200 g/kg diet. The high mortality during the course of the study, the evidence of confounding infection, the limited number of animals for which there was histopathological examination, and the absence of details of the first year of feeding do not provide adequate reassurance as to the ability of this study to detect other than gross effects (Lewerenz  et al., 1981).

Reproductive toxicity studies


Groups of eight male and 16 female rats were used to produce P,  F1a, F1b, F2 and F3 generations after having been fed on diets containing 30% microcrystalline cellulose flour or gel or ordinary cellulose as a control. The presence in the diet of such an amount of  non-nutritious material, which contributed no calories, had an adverse effect on reproduction. Fertility and numbers of live pups were  relatively depressed, and lactation performances in all three  generations, as well as survival and the physical condition of the pups, were unsatisfactory throughout the study. The new-born pup appeared smaller, weak and showed evidence of disturbed motor  coordination. Liver weights were increased in the group receiving microcrystalline cellulose gel in all generations but other organ  weights showed no consistent patterns. At autopsy female rats of all generations showed kidney changes comprising pitting, occasional  enlargement and zonation of the cortex. Other organs showed  no consistent changes. No teratological deformities were seen (Hazleton Labs, 1964).

Special studies on embryotoxicity and teratogenicity


Seventy-two rats (Sprague-Dawley CD) divided into eight groups were fed a mixture of four types of Elceme in the ratio of 1:1:1:1 in the diet at a level of 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% for 10 days, between days 6 and 15 of pregnancy. Rats of four test groups were killed on day 21 of pregnancy and the following parameters studied: number of fetuses and resorption sites, litter size and average weight of rats, average weight of fetuses and average backbone length. Fetuses were also examined for soft tissue or skeletal defects. The remaining groups were allowed to bear young, which were maintained to weaning (21 days). The following parameters were studied: litter size, weight of  pups at days 7 and 21, and there was a histological study of the offspring. Although there is some suggestion that administration of dietary Elceme resulted in a dose-dependent increase in resorption  sites, as well as a change in sex ratio, and possible defects such as  opaque crystalline lenses, the data has not been presented in a manner  that permits a meaningful interpretation. However, the author concluded that Elceme is non-teratogenic (Ferch, 1973a,b).

Groups of 25 presumed pregnant Crl:CD(R) BR VAF/Plus rats were administered 0 (control), 25 000 or 50 000 mg Avicel RCN-15/kg diet (equal to 2.1 and 4.5 g/kg bw per day, respectively)  ad libitum on   days 6 to 15 of gestation. Animals received basal diet at all other  times. In the group receiving 50 000 mg/kg the food consumption on  days 6 to 15 was significantly higher than that of controls, probably because of the increased fibre content. On day 20 of gestation thedams were killed by carbon dioxide inhalation and the following parameters studied: number and distribution of implantation sites,  early and late resorptions, live and dead fetuses and corpora lutea.  External, visceral and skeletal examinations of the fetuses were also  performed. There was no evidence of any adverse effects of the test  material on either the dams or the fetuses. Due to a protocol error fetal sex was not recorded (Freeman, 1992b).

Groups of 25 presumed pregnant Charles River Sprague-Dawley CD  rats were administered 0 (control), 25 000 or 50 000 mg Avicel  CL-611/kg (equal to 2.2 and 4.6 g/kg bw per day, respectively) diet   ad libitum on days 6 to 15 of gestation. Animals received basal diet at all other times. In the test groups the food consumption on days     to 15 was significantly higher than for controls, probably because of   the increased fibre content. The parameters studied and examinations performed were the same as in the study of Freeman (1992b). There was  no evidence of any effects of the Avicel treatment on the fetuses, and there was no evidence of a change of sex ratio in the pups or of eye defects. Under the conditions of the study, the maternal and fetal  NOEL was > 50 000 mg/kg diet (equal to 4.6 g/kg bw per day) (Freeman,   1994b).

Special studies on genotoxicity

Various microcrystalline cellulose preparations have been tested for genotoxicity in several different assay systems. The results of which were negative, are summarized in Table 2.

In the reverse mutation assays the microcrystalline cellulose formulations produced a heavy precipitate on the plate at the highest concentration. Solubility also affected the forward mutation assays and it was not possible to include concentrations of the test material that were cytotoxic. In the  in vivo mammalian micronucleus assays it is improbable that there was appreciable persorption of the test materials, and, therefore, there was little exposure of the bone marrow cells. In the test in which Avicel RCN-15 was used it was administered admixed with the diet of male and female ICR mice. Only mice that had consumed all the diet within 10 hours were retained in the study and were killed after 24, 48 or 72 hours. Because one group of control mice had 0 micronuclei per 1000 polychromatic erythrocytes, the comparison with the test group was statistically significant. This was not considered to be a valid observation. There is no evidence that microcrystalline cellulose is genotoxic.

Special studies on sensitization

  Avicel RCN-15 was determined to be non-sensitizing when topically  applied to ten male and ten female Hartley guinea-pigs (Freeman,  1991e).

Avicel AC-815 was determined to be non-sensitizing when topicall    applied to ten male Hartley guinea-pigs (Freeman, 1996c).

Special studies on skin and eye irritation

Avicel RCN-15 was judged to be minimally irritating after  instillation into the eyes of four male and two female New Zealand White rabbits (Freeman, 1991c).

Avicel AC-815 was judged to be minimally irritating after   instillation into the eyes of four male and two female New Zealand  White rabbits (Freeman, 1996a).

Avicel RCN-15 was judged to be non-irritating after a 4-hour occlusive contact with the skin of three male and three female New Zealand White rabbits (Freeman, 1991d).

Avicel AC-815 was judged to be non-irritating after a 4-hour occlusive contact with the skin of three male and three female New Zealand White rabbits (Freeman, 1996b).

Special studies on effects of cellulose fibre on tumour growth 

The effect of artifical diets containing varied concentrations of either wheat bran or pure cellulose fibre on the induction of mammary  tumours by  N-nitrosomethylurea (i.v., 40 mg/kg) was studied in female F344 rats. The wheat bran diet appeared to possess anti-promotion properties that pure cellulose lacked. The concentrations of serum estrogens, urinary estrogens and faecal estrogens did not vary in a consistent, statistically significant manner (Cohen  et al., 1996).

The effect of a high-fibre diet containing 45 000 mg/kg Avicel PH- 105 on the development of colon tumours was investigated in male Wistar rats that were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (25 mg/kg, s.c., once weekly for 16 weeks). The test and control diets were administered for 2 weeks prior to the first injection of the carcinogen. There was a reduction in the number of animals bearing colon tumours and a statistically significant reduction in the number of colon tumours/rat in the high-fibre dietary group. However, for small bowel tumours and tumours of the ear canal there was no significant difference between the dietary groups Freeman et al., 1978).

A later study by the same authors demonstrated that there was no significant effect of increasing the level of cellulose in the diet to 9000 mg/kg (Freeman  et al., 1980).

Observations in humans

Toxicity consequent to substance abuse 

Intravenous abuse of drugs available in tablet form has led to the detection of excipients, e.g., talc, magnesium stearate or microcrystalline cellulose, in the tissues of a series of 33 fatality cases of intravenous drug addicts. Microcrystalline cellulose (21  cases) and talc (31 cases) were detected most frequently and, in some cases, were associated with granulomatous lesions (Kringsholm & Christoffersen, 1987).

Changes in gastrointestinal function and nutrient balance

A number of clinical studies using refined cellulose as roughage  in the human diet for the treatment of constipation showed no  deleterious effects. Groups of 18 children received regular amounts of   edible cellulose instead of normal cereal for three months. The only  effect noted was an increase in bowel movements but no diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal disturbances were seen (Frey  et al., 1928).

Eight male and eight female volunteers supplemented their normal diet with 30 g microcrystalline cellulose per day as either dry powder or gel (15% aqueous) for 6 weeks followed by 2 weeks without supplementation. No adverse findings were reported regarding acceptance or body weight but most subjects complained of fullness and mild constipation. Haematology was normal in all subjects. Biochemical blood values showed no differences between treatment and control periods, nor was there evidence of liver or kidney function disturbance. Urinalysis produced normal findings. The faecal flora remained unchanged. The cellulose content of faeces increase five to eight times during the test period. Microscopy revealed the presence of microcrystalline cellulose (Hazleton Labs, 1962).

In another study, eight healthy males received 30 g microcrystalline cellulose daily as supplement to their diet for 15 days. D-xylose absorption varied between pretest, test and post-test periods, being lower during microcrystalline cellulose ingestion. The absorption of 131I-triolein was unaffected by microcrystalline  cellulose ingestion. No change was noted in the faecal flora nor was there any significant effect on blood chemistry during ingestion of microcrystalline cellulose. Examination of urine, blood and faecal levels of vitamin B1 during microcrystalline cellulose ingestion showed no difference from control periods (Asahi Chemical Industry Co., 1966).

Twelve men consumed diets containing fibres from various sources for periods of 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between alues of serum cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels measured after consumption of the basal diet, compared with the values measured after consumption of a diet containing cellulose fibres (90% cellulose, 10% hemicellulose; James River Corp., Berlin, New Hampshire, USA). There were no significant differences in plasma VLDL and HDL cholesterol or in the ratio of HDL/VLDL+LDL cholesterol. However, the increase in plasma LDL cholesterol after the cellulose diet was significant (Behall  et al., 1984).

A similar study in a group of four men and six women could detect no effect of a diet containing added alpha-cellulose (15 g daily) on serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and the ratio of HDL to total cholesterol. The cellulose was well tolerated (Hillman et al., 1985).

A double-blind cross-over trial of the effects of guar gum andmicrocrystalline cellulose on metabolic control and serum lipids in 22 Type 2 diabetic patients has been carried out. The fibre preparations were given at 15 g/day for a 2-week period and then at 5 g/day for the remaining 10-week period of each treatment phase. There was no effect of the microcrystalline cellulose diet on fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum zinc or ferritin, or urinary magnesium excretion (Niemi   et al., 1988).

The effect of various dietary fibres, including microcrystalline cellulose (40 g), on the uptake of vitamin A (approximately sixty times the daily requirement) from a test meal was investigated in 11 female subjects aged 19 to 22. All the dietary fibres significantly increased the absorption of the vitamin A over a period of 9 hours (Kasper  et al., 1979).

A study of apparent mineral balance in a group of eleven men revealed that there was no significant effect of cellulose, added to the diet at 7.5 g per 1000 kcal for 4 weeks, on the mineral balance of calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, copper or zinc. However, in this report the source of the cellulose fibre was not specified (Behall et al., 1987).

The addition of nutritional grade cellulose (21 g) to the daily diet of healthy adolescent girls resulted in reduction of the serum calcium, phosphorus and iron concentrations. The authors suggested that high-fibre diets may not be advisable (Godara  et al., 1981).

A study of only three men on a low-fibre diet claimed changes in mineral balance consequent on the consumption of additional cellulose fibre, 10 g of Whatman No. 3 filter paper daily, in the diet (Ismail-Beigi  et al., 1977).

Microcrystalline cellulose (5 g) did not appear to inhibit the uptake of iron in women who were neither pregnant nor lactating (Gillooly  et al., 1984).

A group of twenty women, aged 27-48, who were given 20 g packs of alpha-cellulose to be consumed daily for three months, were included in a study of the effect of indole-3-carbinol on estrogen metabolite ratios. Because the control group and the group fed indole-3-carbinol received capsules, the cellulose group could not be blinded; in addition, an unspecified number of subjects in this group dropped out as they found that the cellulose suspension was unpalatable. However, the authors suggest that the estrogen metabolite ratio in the high- fibre group was not different from that in the control group (Bradlow et al., 1994).


Persorption of microcrystalline cellulose was reported in various species, which included rats, in early studies. A recent study in which a special fine particle size preparation of microcrystalline  cellulose (median diameter of particles 6 µm) was administered orally to rats (5 g/kg bw per day) for 90 days has failed to confirm the earlier observations. In this study precautions were taken to ensure that, at autopsy, there was no cross-contamination of the tissues with fine particulate matter.

In various parenteral studies of the acute toxicity of microcrystalline cellulose in animals there have been signs consistent with a tissue response to foreign particles. Similarly, microcrystalline cellulose has been associated with the formation of granulomas in human lung when it has been injected intravenously during drug abuse. No such lesions have been described as a consequence of oral ingestion of microcrystalline cellulose by rats or humans.

In 90-day toxicity tests during which microcrystalline cellulose was administered to rats in the diet at concentrations of 2.5 to 50%, increased consumption of food to compensate for the content of this material was observed. Although this may have some effects on mineral absorption there was, in general, no compound-related systemic toxicity. The NOEL exceeded 50 g/kg diet, at which dose level the mean intakes of microcrystalline cellulose by male and female rats were 3.8 and 4.4 g/kg bw per day, respectively.

A two-year feeding study of microcrystalline cellulose in rats was brought to the attention of the Committee. Despite a lack of evidence of toxic effects, the Committee considered that the execution and reporting of the study were not adequate to identify a NOEL.

In vitro and  in vivo genotoxicity studies were negative.

In a three-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats that had been reviewed by an earlier Committee, there were some effects of using 30% microcrystalline cellulose in the diet; these had been considered to be a consequence of the quantity of material reducing the energy density of the diet. However, in recent embryotoxicity and teratogenicity studies in rats there was no evidence of compound-related effects at dietary levels up to 50 g of microcrystalline cellulose per kg diet (equal to 4.6 g/kg bw per day), given on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy.

In some human studies there have been reports of alterations to gastrointestinal function following ingestion of microcrystalline cellulose. The changes do not appear to be related to systemic toxicity.


The Committee concluded that the toxicological data from humans  and animals provided no evidence that the ingestion of  microcrystalline cellulose can cause toxic effects in humans when used  in foods according to good manufacturing practice.

It is recognized that small particles of other materials may be   persorbed and that the extent of persorption is greater with sub-micrometre particles. Despite the absence of any demonstrated persorption of microcrystalline cellulose in the recent study in rats, the Committee, as a precautionary measure, revised the specifications   for microcrystalline cellulose at the present meeting to limit the content of particles less than 5 µm in diameter. The Committee  retained the ADI “not specified” for microcrystalline cellulose  conforming to these specifications.


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Freeman, C. (1991b) Avicel RCN-15. Acute dermal toxicity study in rats. Unpublished report No. I91-1219 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1991c) Avicel RCN-15. Primary eye irritation study in rabbits. Unpublished report No. I91-1218 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1991d) Avicel RCN-15. Primary skin irritation study in rabbits. Unpublished report No. I91-1220 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1991e) Avicel RCN-15. Skin sensitisation study in guinea pigs. Unpublished report No. I91-1216 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1992a) Avicel RCN-15. Ninety-day feeding study in rats. Unpublished report No. I91-1202 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1992b) Avicel RCN-15. Teratology study in rats (dietary). Unpublished report No. I91-1213 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1994a) Avicel CL-611. Ninety-day feeding study in rats. Unpublished report No. I92-1711 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1994b) Avicel CL-611. Teratology study in rats (dietary). Unpublished report No. I92-1712 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1996a) Avicel AC-815. Primary eye irritation study in rabbits. Unpublished report No. I95-2042 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1996b) Avicel AC-815. Primary skin irritation study in rabbits. Unpublished report No. I95-2043 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1996c) Avicel AC-815. Skin sensitization study in guinea pigs. Unpublished report No. I95-2044 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1996d) Avicel AC-815. Acute oral toxicity study in rats. Unpublished report No. I95-2040 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, C. (1996e) Avicel AC-815. Acute dermal toxicity study in rats. Unpublished report No. I95-2041 from FMC Corporation Toxicology Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA (Submitted to WHO by FMC Europe N.V.).

Freeman, H.J., Spiller, G.A., & Kim, Y.S. (1978) A double-blind study on the effect of purified cellulose dietary fiber on 1,2- dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colonic neoplasia.  Cancer Res., 38: 2912-2917.

Freeman, H.J., Spiller, G.A., & Kim, Y.S. (1980) A double-blind study on the effects of differing purified cellulose and pectin fiber diets on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colonic neoplasia.  CancerRes., 40: 2661-2665.

Frey, J.W., Harding, E.R., & Helmbold, T.R. (1928) Dietetic investigations of edible pure cellulose.  Med. J. Rec., 127: 585-589.

Gillooly, M., Bothwell, T.H., Charlton, R.W., Torrance, J.D., Bezwoda, W.R., MacPhail, A.P., Derman, D.P., Novelli, L., Morrall, P., & Mayet, (1984) Factors affecting the absorption of iron from cereals. Br. J. Nutr., 51: 37-46.

Godara, R., Kaur, A.P., & Bhat, C.M. (1981) Effect of cellulose incorporation in a low fiber diet on fecal excretion and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and iron in adolescent girls.  Am. J. Clin.Nutr.,  34: 1083-1086.

Gordon, D.T., Besch-Williford, C., & Ellersieck, M.R. (1983) The action of cellulose on the intestinal mucosa and element absorption by the rat.  J. Nutr., 113: 2545-2556.

Hazleton Labs (1962) Microcrystalline cellulose; oral administration – Human. Unpublished report from Hazleton Labs, Inc. (Submitted to WHO by FMC Corporation).

Hazleton Labs (1963) Long-term nutritional balance study – Rats. Unpublished report from Hazleton Labs, Inc. (Submitted to WHO by FMC Corporation).

Hazleton Labs (1964) Microcrystalline cellulose: reproduction study – Rats. Unpublished report from Hazleton Labs, Inc. (Submitted to WHO by FMC Corporation).

Hillman, L.C., Peters, S.G., Fisher, C.A., & Pomare, E.W. (1985) The effects of the fiber components pectin, cellulose and lignin on serum cholesterol levels.  Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 42: 207-213.

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LeFevre, M.E., Hancock, D.C., & Joel, D.D. (1980) Intestinal barrier to large particulates in mice.  J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 6: 691.

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Linskens, H.F. & Jorde, W. (1974) Persorption of lycopodium spores and pollen grains,  Naturwissenschaften, 61: 275-276.

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Sankaran’s ‘Sensations-Kingdoms’ Method- Homeopathy Crippled By Lack Of Basic Scientific Awareness

Corner stone of ‘Sankaran Method’ is classifying drugs into ‘animal’, ‘plant’, and ‘mineral’ kingdoms. Then each kingdom is related with particular group of ‘vital sensations’. Plant remedies are used for individuals having ‘vital sensations’ belonging to the group of ‘sensitivity’, animal remedies are used for those having ‘viatal sensations’ belonging to the class of ‘survival instincts’, and mineral remedies for ‘structural consciousness’.

First, we have to analyze the concept of ‘remedy kingdoms’. Medicinal properties of any remedy is determined by the chemical structure and properties of the individual chemical molecules they contain. Because, it is individual drug molecules that act upon biological molecules, produce inhibitions, molecular pathology and associated symptoms. During potentization, it is the individual drug molecules that undergo molecular imprinting, and as such, it is the individual molecular imprints that act as therapeutic agents. In the absence of this molecular perspective of our medicinal substances, we fall prey to all sorts of unscientific theories that misguide us gravely.

Let us consider a particular remedy belonging to plant kingdom. The molecular composition as well as chemical and medicinal properties of the particular drug sample will be decided by various factors. It will contain kingdom-specific, family-specific, species-specific, variety specific, plant-specific and environmental-specific chemical molecules. Part of plant from which the drug substance is extracted is also a decisive factor. Nux vomica tinctures prepared from seeds, fruits, flowers, leaves, bark or root of nux vomica plant will have different molecular composition and medicinal properties. Some molecules will be common to all samples from a particular plant. Certain other molecules will be common to all samples from a particular species. There will be some molecules common to family, as well as some common to plant kingdom as a whole.  Plants belonging to same family will have some common genes, which would produce some similar proteins and enzymes, that would lead to similar molecular processes and synthesis of similar molecules. There would be kingdom-specific, family specific, species specific, variety specific and individual specific and tissue specific chemicals in a plant drug.

As per this perspective, medicinal properties of a given drug substance of ‘plant kingdom’ will be decided by the collective properties of organ specific, plant specific, variety specific, species specific, family specific and kingdom specific chemical molecules contained in them. It is obvious that it is wrong to think that medicinal properties of a drug substance could be assumed by the ‘kingdom’ to which it belongs.

This is applicable to all drugs belonging to mineral as well as animal kingdoms.

When animal or plant substances are disintegrated or divided into individual molecules, they become similar to mineral drugs at molecular level. There are many drugs which could not be included in any particular kingdom. Petroleum is a mineral, but it is the product of disintegration of animal and vegetable matter under ocean beds. Acetic acid is a mineral, but it is prepared from vegetable products. How can we say lactic acid, prepared from milk is plant remedy or mineral remedy? All of us consider calc carb as mineral drug, but exactly it is the ‘middle layer of oyster shells’, and as such, is an animal drug. Kreasote is combination of phenols prepared from wood, and how can we say it is ‘plant’ or ‘mineral’?

At molecular level, the dividing line between ‘plant, animal and mineral’ kingdoms is irrelevant. It is the molecular structure and chemical properties that decide the medicinal properties. To be more specific, it is the functional groups or moieties that act as decisive factor. Classifying drugs on the basis of ‘kingdoms’ and assigning certain ‘mental level sensations’ to them is totally unscientific and illogical. It illustrates the pathetic level of scientific awareness that rules the propagators of ‘sankaran method’.

Rajan Sankaran’s ‘sensation’ method is based on the concepts of ‘deeper level vital sensations’ and corresponding ‘remedy kingdoms’. This method has nothing in common with classical homeopathy, where symptoms belonging to mentals, physical generals and particulars, with their qualifications such as causations, sensations, locations, modalities and concomitants decide the selection of similimum.

According to this theory, ‘structure’ is the basic sensation of ‘minerals’, ‘sensitivity’ is the basic sensation of ‘plants’ and ‘survival’ is the basic sensation of ‘animals’.

According to this methods, case taking involves an inquiry into ‘deeper levels of consciousness’, by prompting the patient to introspect from ‘symptoms’ into ‘deeper, deeper and still deeper’ levels so that his basic ‘vital sensation’ is explored. Then this ‘vital sensation’ is used to decide the ‘kingdom’ to which the patient belong. Remedies are selected from these ‘remedy kingdoms’.

The most dogmatic part of this theory is the relating of ‘vital sensation’ with ‘remedy kingdoms’. On what basis sankaran says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of ‘plants’? Any logical or scientific explanation for this relationship? If we go through materia medica of various drugs, we can see many ‘animal’ and ‘minerals drugs’ having sensitivity of high order. How can anybody claiming to be a homeopath ignore the whole drug provings and materia medica to declare that ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of ‘plants’ only?

When a homeopath says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation of plants, it means all plant remedies have produced such a characteristic sensation in healthy individuals during drug proving. To say ‘animal drugs’ have ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instinct’, a homeopath should be capable of showing examples from materia medica to justify that statement. Same with ‘vital sensations’ of mineral drugs. Our materia medica does not show that only ‘plant drugs’ produced ‘sensitivity’ in provers.  We can see many ‘animal’ and ‘mineral’ drugs with high order of ‘sensitivity’.  If not from materia medica, where from Dr Sankaran ‘invented’ that ‘vital sensation’ of ‘sensitivity’ is the basic characteristic of ‘plant kingdom’?

See the rubric ‘sensitive’ in ‘mind’ of kent repertory:

[Kent]Mind : SENSITIVE, oversensitive:- Acon., Aesc., Aeth., Alum., Am-c., Anac., Ang., Ant-c., Apis., Arg-n., Arn., Ars., Ars-i., Asaf., Asar., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bor., Bov., Bry., Calc., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cann-s., Canth., Carb-an., Carb-s., Carb-v., Cast., Caust., Cham., Chin., Chin-a., Chin-s., Cic., Cina., Clem., Cocc., Coff., Colch., Coloc., Con., Crot-h., Cupr., Daph., Dig., Dros., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Ferr-p., Fl-ac., Gels., Gran., Hep., Hyos., Ign., Iod., Kali-ar., Kali-c., Kali-i., Kali-n., Kali-p., Kali-s., Kreos., Lac-c., Lach., Laur., Lyc., Lyss., Mag-m., Med., Meph., Merc., Mez., Mosch., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nat-s., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Ph-ac., Phos., Plat., Plb., Psor., Puls., Ran-b., Sabad., Sabin., Samb., Sanic., Sars., Seneg., Sep., Sil., Spig., Stann., Staph., Sulph., Tab., Teucr., Ther., Thuj., Valer., Verat., Viol-t., Zinc.

In this list, 46 remedies belong to ‘mineral kingdom’: alumina, ammo carb, antim crud, arg nit, ars, ars iod, aur, baryta, borax, calc, calc phos, calc sulph, carb sulph, causticum, cupr, ferr, ferr ars, ferr ph, fl acid, hep, iod, kali group, mag mur, mercury, natrum group, nit acid, phos acid, phos, platinum, plumbum, sanicula, silicea, stannum, suplh, zinc

12 remedies are from ‘animal kingdom’: Apis, cantharis, carb an, crot h, lac can, lach, med, moschus, psorinum, sep, theri.

Remaining 56 remedies are of ‘plant kingdom’.

On what basis sankaran says ‘sensitivity’ is the ‘vital sensation’ of plant kingdom? How can anybody say persons who are ‘sensitive’ at the deeper’ level need ‘plant remedies only? How can this theory be called homeopathy?

Similarly, if we examine various rubrics belonging to ‘survival’ instinct, or ‘structural’ sensations, we can see they are not limited to animal or mineral remedies only. Many ‘plant remedies’ have such symptoms.

According to Rajan Sankaran, FEAR is the indication of VITAL SENSATION of ‘survival instincts’ which need an ANIMAL KINGDOM drug. Based on which materia medica rajan sankaran says ‘vital sensation’ of ‘fear’ indicates only ‘animal kingdom remedy’?

Please see the MIND rubric FEAR in Kent Repertory:

[Kent]Mind : FEAR:- Absin., Acet-ac., Acon., Aeth., Agar., Agn., Aloe., Alum., Am-c., Anac., Ang., Ant-c., Ant-t., Arg-n., Ars., Ars-i., Asaf., Aur., Bapt., Bar-c., Bar-m., Bell., Bor., Bry., Bufo., Cact., Calad., Calc., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cann-i., Cann-s., Caps., Carb-an., Carb-s., Carb-v., Cast., Caust., Cham., Chin., Chin-a., Chlor., Cic., Cimic., Coca., Coc-c., Cocc., Coff., Coloc., Con., Croc., Crot-h., Cupr., Daph., Dig., Dros., Dulc., Echi., Elaps., Eupho., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Ferr-p., Form., Gels., Gent-c., Glon., Graph., Hell., Hep., Hydr-ac., Hyos., Hyper., Ign., Iod., Ip., Kali-ar., Kali-br., Kali-c., Kali-i., Kali-n., Kali-p., Kali-s., Lach., Lil-t., Lob., Lyc., Lyss., Mag-c., Mag-m., Manc., Meli., Merc., Merc-i-r., Mez., Mosch., Mur-ac., Murx., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-p., Nat-s., Nicc., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Onos., Op., Petr., Phos., Phyt., Pip-m., Plat., Psor., Puls., Ran-b., Raph., Rheum., Rhod., Rhus-t., Rhus-v., Ruta., Sec., Sep., Sil., Spig., Spong., Squil., Stann., Staph., Stram., Stront., Stry., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tab., Tarent., Thuj., Til., Valer., Verat., Zinc.

See. 75 drugs belong to PLANT KINGDOM! 54 are MINERAL drugs! Only 9 ANIMAL drugs! How Rajan Sankaran say only ANIMAL drugs are indicated for ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instincts’? By this approach, the practitioner who looks only ‘animal’ drugs is actually deprived of a large number of drugs belonging to other ‘kingdoms’, one of which may be the real similimum.

There may be many patients ‘sensitive at deeper levels’ who may require ‘animal’ or ‘mineral’ drugs if we select drugs using homeopathic method of totality of symptoms. Limiting all ‘sensitive’ patients to ‘plant kingdom’ remedies may be detrimental in such cases.

Rajan Sankaran says FEAR is the expression if ‘vital sensation of survival instincts’ which the ‘theme’ or quality of ‘animals’. As such, sankaran method uses only ‘animal remedies’ for people exhibiting ‘deep seated’ fear.

Homeopathic understanding of medicinal properties of drug substances are based on symptoms produced in healthy individuals during drug provings. Those symptoms are listed in our materia medica and repertories. We similimum by comparing symptoms of patients with symptoms of drugs, which is the basis of our therapeutic principle ‘similia similibus curentur’.

Please go to KENT REPERTORY> MIND > FEAR: Aconite, Argentum Nit, Aurum, Bell, Borax, Calc Phos, Calc, Carb sulph, Cicuta, Digitalis, Graphites, Ignatia, Kali Ars, Lyco, Lyssin, Nat Carb, Phos, Platina, Psor, Sepia and Stram are the drugs listed with THREE MARKS under FEAR.

As per homeopathic method of similimum being selected on the basis of our materia medica, these are the prominent drugs to be considered in patients with characeristic sensation of FEAR.

But, according to sankaran, FEAR indicates ‘vital sensation’ of ‘survival instincts’, which needs ‘animal remedies’ only. Only animal remeies found in above list are Lyssin, Psorinum and Sepia. Homeopaths practicing sankaran method will obviously ignore all other drugs in this list, since they are not ‘animal remedies’. Does this approach strengthen homeopaths, or debilitate them?

I want to know, from where sankaran got the idea that only ‘plant remedies’ have ‘fear’ and ‘survival instincts’? Which drug proving? Which materia medica? A person cannot claim to be homeopath by ignoring all available homeopathic literature on materia medica, and producing materia medica and symptoms from his fancies.

Some people claim, sankaran’s concepts are based on his ‘observations’. Did he conducted drug provings of all drugs and ‘observe’ their symptoms? Did he prove the symptoms given in our materia medica are not reliable? Which proving showed him sepia, lyssin and psorinum has more ‘fear’ than phos, bell, stram or arg nit?

Would Sankaran say a homeopath cannot cure a patient having ‘survival insticts’ and ‘fear’ using phosporous or stramonium, if they turn out to be similimum on the basis of totality of symptoms. Should we avoid phos, since it is not an ‘animal drug’?

Please see following rubrics:

[Kent]Mind : FIGHT, wants to:- Bell., Bov., Hipp., Hyos., Merc., Sec.

[Kent]Mind : QUARRELSOME:- Acon., Agar., Alum., Ambr., Am-c., Anac., Anan., Ant-t., Arn., Ars., Aster., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bor., Bov., Brom., Bry., Calc., Calc-s., Camph., Canth., Caps., Caust., Cench., Cham., Chel., Chin., Con., Cor-r., Croc., Crot-h., Cupr., Dig., Dulc., Elaps., Ferr., Ferr-ar., Fl-ac., Hipp., Hyos., Ign., Ip., Kali-ar., Kali-c., Kali-i., Lach., Lepi., Lyc., Lyss., Merc., Merl., Mez., Mosch., Nat-a., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nat-s., Nicc., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Olnd., Pall., Petr., Ph-ac., Phos., Plat., Plb., Psor., Ran-b., Rat., Rheum., Ruta., Seneg., Sep., Spong., Stann., Staph., Stram., Stront., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tarent., Thea., Thuj., Til., Verat., Verat-v., Viol-t., Zinc.

According to sankaran, ‘quarelling’ and ‘fighting’ indicates ‘survival instincts’, which require ‘animal remedies’.

Under the rubric “Mind : FIGHT, wants to”, not a single ‘animal remedy’ is seen, except hipp.

Under ‘quarrelsome’, ambra, asterias,cantharis, cenchris, corralium, crotalus, elaps, hipp, lach, lyssin, psor, sep, spong, and tarent are the animal remedies.

Would you say, all remedies other than these ‘animal remedies’ should be eliminated while selecting a similimum for this patient?

According to sankaran, JEALOUSY is a ‘vital sensation’ of ‘ANIMAL KINGDOM’.

See this rubric:

[Kent]Mind : JEALOUSY:- Anan., Apis., Calc-p., Calc-s., Camph., Cench., Coff., Gall-ac., Hyos., Ign., Lach., Nux-v., Op., Ph-ac., Puls., Raph., Staph., Stram.

LACHESIS and HYOS are 3 marks drugs for this symptom. Only APIS, CENCHRIS, and LACHESIS are ‘animal’ drugs’. Anan, Camph, Coff, Hyos, Ign, Nux, Opium, Puls, Raph, Staph and Stram are ‘plant remedies’. Calc P, Calc S, Gall ac and Phos ac are mineral drugs.

We will have to eliminate HYOS when searching a similimum for a person with jealousy as a prominent symptom, if we follow sankaran method!

Homeopathic materia medica or repertory does not support sankaran’s theory that persons with ‘vital sensation’ of ‘jealousy’ would require ‘animal drugs’ only.

Sankaran says LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE indicates a vital sensation of ‘structural consciousness’, which is a MINERAL quality. Only ‘mineral drugs’ have to be considered for patients exhibiting ‘vital sensation of LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE.

See this rubric in kent repertory:

[Kent]Mind : CONFIDENCE, want of self:- Agn., Alum., Anac., Anan., Ang., Arg-n., Aur., Bar-c., Bell., Bry., Calc., Canth., Carb-an., Carb-v., Caust., Chin., Chlor., Dros., Gels., Hyos., Ign., Iod., Kali-c., Kali-n., Kali-s., Lac-c., Lach., Lyc., Merc., Mur-ac., Nat-c., Nat-m., Nit-ac., Nux-v., Olnd., Op., Pall., Phos., Plb., Puls., Ran-b., Rhus-t., Ruta., Sil., Stram., Sul-ac., Sulph., Tab., Ther., Verb., Viol-t., Zinc.

Only ANACARDIUM is 3 marks drug for this symptom. It is a PLANT REMEDY!

24 drugs- Agnus, Anac, Anan, Ang, Bell, Bry, Carb v, China, Dros, Gels, Hyos, Ign, Lyc, Nux V, Oleand, Opium, Puls, Ran b, Rhus t, Ruta, Stram, Tab, Verb and Viol t are PLANT REMEDIES.

5 drugs- Canth, Carb an, Lac can, Lach and Ther are ANIMAL DRUGS.

23 drugs- Alum, Arg Nit, Aur, Bar c, Calc, Caust, Chlor, Iod, Kali c, Kali n, Kali s, Merc, Mur ac, Nat c, Nat m, Nit ac, Pall, Phos, Plumb, Sil, Sul ac, Sul and Zinc are MINERAL DRUGS.

Materia medica or repertories no way justify sankaran’s theory that LACK OF SELF CONFIDENCE would require only MINERAL REMEDIES. How can a person claiming to be homeopath make a theory and method of practice totally ignoring our whole materia medica and drug proving?

Sankaran’s reputation, experience or vast followings should not prevent us from asking genuine questions. We need answers for these questions, since sankaran claims to be a homeopath.

Sankaran’s method will result in gravely disabled in incapacitated homeopathic practice, preventing homeopaths from utilizing the unlimited potentials of our materia medica.

Obviously, the basic dogma of ‘sensations-kingdom’ relationship on which ‘sankaran method’ is built up, lacks the support of logic or materia medica.

Anybody can make any theories. But it is wrong to say it is homeopathy.

Rajan Sankaran gives a case of ‘tumor in eye ball’ cured by ‘argentum nit’ as an example of successful employment of his ‘sensation method’:

“I had a case of a man with a tumor in his eyeball, and he described it thus; that this tumour caused a certain “imbalance” in his eyes. Then he described this imbalance as a sense of inco-ordination, and further, how co-ordination was the most important thing in his life; how everything needed to be co-ordinated. Going further along this line, he said it’s the kind of co-ordination that a pilot needs when piloting his plane, or a rocket scientist needs when he makes a rocket. It’s the kind of co-ordination that an actor needs when he is performing live on stage, and several such examples.”

“At some point, he described a situation where his mother-in-law did something behind his back, and when I asked him what he had felt about it, he replied that he felt very disappointed, and betrayed. Now, these emotions of disappointment and betrayal are present in his case, and one might be tempted to use rubrics like “ailments from disappointment, or betrayal”. But if you ask further, “Describe the disappointment”, then you bring out the true individuality of the person in the circumstance. When somebody does something behind your back, which is not expected, the feeling of disappointment is common, not individual. Hahnemann always emphasized the individualizing phenomena, the characteristic symptoms.”

“Here, when we look at disappointment, it’s not individual enough, not characteristic enough. Go further. When I asked him, “Describe the disappointment”, he said, “It’s as if somebody had punched me in my stomach.” This now gets more characteristic. Take it one step further. I asked him, “Describe the experience of being punched” and he said, “I feel completely suffocated.” “Describe suffocation.” And it opens out and you find that there is the suffocation sensation in many areas in his life, like when swimming, or in claustrophobic situations, etc. That suffocation sensation, along with the sense of importance of co-ordination and control, like a stage artist, or a plane pilot, gives us the remedy Argentum nitricum, which has the control, co-ordination as well as the suffocation. That remedy cured the tumour in his eye.”

“So the “ailments from disappointment” or “delusion that somebody had punched his stomach”, is a more superficial expression. The deeper expression is the tremendous sense of suffocation that he felt, not only in the situation with his mother-in-law, but in every area of his life. A sensation that is so individual, and so completely unconnected with the external reality that it becomes the most individualizing symptom of the person, both physical and mental. It is at the Sensation level.”


When we analyze, this case, we would realize that sankaran did not utilize his ‘kingdom approach’ in this case. He does not say ‘argentum nitricum’ was selected as a ‘mineral drug’, as he normally does. Instead, he says “suffocation sensation, along with the sense of importance of co-ordination and control, like a stage artist, or a plane pilot, gives us the remedy Argentum nitricum, which has the control, co-ordination as well as the suffocation. That remedy cured the tumour in his eye.

Rajan Sankaran, being a very experienced physician having mastered the materia medica and successfully treated thousands of cases in his practice, could rightly select ‘arg nit’ as the correct similimum from symptoms such as ‘general sensation of suffocation’, ‘sensation of incordination’, and of course, from other numerous symptoms and observations he would have collected during case taking but opted to give in his case report.

Can any less experienced follower of sanakaran, with lesser materia medica knowledge, ever select ‘arg nit’ as the similimum of this patient, on the basis of ‘suffocation’ and ‘incoordination’ only, and a knowledge that patient needs a ‘mineral drug’ as per sankaran’s theory? Please note, Sankaran does not mention ‘kingdom’ while explaining this case.

Any homeopath who knows how to take case, repertorize and decide a similimum using materia medica, could have very easily selected ‘arg nit’ in this case by classical method in a very simple way.

Since the patient is coming with ‘tumor in eye’, an ordinary homeopath would start case taking by collecting symptoms with ‘eye’ and ‘vision’, trying to collect all modalities, sensations and concomitants associated with ‘eye’ and ‘vision’.

The ‘incoordination’ in eyes sankaran talks about will have to be probed in detail, to know whether it is problems of accommodation(accommodation defective), dimness of vision, diplopia, moving vision, alternate vanishing of vision or anything like that. Remember, all these problems of vision could be seen in materia medica of ‘arg nit’ in high order. Observe whether there is any chemosis, echymosis, lachrymation, pain, swelling, or any other peculiar sensations in eyes, with their modalities. Sensation of fullness in eyes, strbismus, cold-heat modalities also have to be ascertained. Itching, discoloration, frequent wiping, and many such features could be observed.

After completing ‘particulars’, physician would inquire mentals and physical generals. What sankaran interprets as ‘suffocation’ would be described by the patient as aggravation in closed room, desire for open air, aggravation in crowded rooms, general physical anxiety, sensation of balls internally, intolerance of clothing, sensation of being constricted by a band around body, and such symptoms. See, most of these symptoms strongly indicate argentum nitricum.

Regarding his mentals, from what sankaran explained, we can understand there would be symptoms such as persistent anxiety, despair, feeling of betrayed, sadness, anticipations, confusion of mind, being repudiated by relatives, dwelling on past bad experiences, delusions of getting punched, forsaken feelings, mortification and many such symptoms, most of which obviously points to argentum nitricm.

For an experienced homeopath like sankaran, arg nit is the obvious prescription for this case without any special methods and techniques or even repertorization. Any homeopath who could collect these symptoms would reach argentum nit through simple repertorization. As for me, I would have reached arg nit by the time I complete my case taking.

Why should Rajan sankaran pretend to be finding similimum in this type of obvious cases through his ‘sensation-kingdom’ method, only to confuse youg homeopaths?

That is the game plan of all modern gurus and masters. They would prescribe correctly using their materia medica knowledge and, make results. Then they would pretend the made this miraculous results using their ‘special methods’ they are marketing! Innocent follower is betrayed, and his carrier doomed to be spoiled, by keeing on trying the ‘methods’ the guru taught them.

As part of my mission to evolve and promote scientific homeopathy, I will have to discuss and analyse various existing theories about homeopathy. I will have to point out things I think are not agreeing with modern scientific knowledge system. Such criticisms and discussions are part of work I am engaged in. It is nothing personal. I have no any personal agenda here. I analyse and expose each and every ideas, concepts and methods in homeopathy that hinder scientific transformation of homeopathy.

Earlier, once I took up discussing Dr Vijaykar’s theories, ‘cubs’ and ‘lions’ of that group threatened me for my life. They told me ‘you will have no place to run’. Next came the attacks from marketers of ‘hair transmissionis’. Promoters of ‘energy medicine’ theories also did the same. Homeopathic World Community removed all my articles from their pages, since they could not tolerate my exposures of ‘international masters’ who promote homeopathy as ‘energy medicine’ and practice homeopathy as part of their CAM ‘healing arts’. I had to relinquish my HWC membership on that issue.

Now, it is the turn of disciples of Rajan Sankaran and Jan Scholton. Once I just took up discussing ‘sensation method’, ‘kingdom method’ and ‘periodical table method’, a whole hornet’s nest is infuriated and out for me. I wanted to discuss their theories due to my conviction that scientific homeopathy cannot advance without exposing these highly influential but unscientific theories. My message box is daily full of messages warning me of ‘dire consequences’. Instead of discussing or explaining the points I raised, I am abused, threatened and asked to ‘stay away from our master’. I am accused of being jealous, arrogant, insane and working with hidden personal agendas. They diagnosed my problem as ‘severe skepticemia’!

I just don’t care. I will go on with my mission of evolving homeopathy into a full-fledged medical science. I know I will have to pay a price, perhaps with my life itself. But I am not bothered. Let the dogs bark, caravan will move on!

Without criticizing and exposing wrong ideas and wrong practices, we cannot evolve and promote right ideas and right practices in homeopathy.

I am asked to ‘read all books of sankaran, and apply it myself’ to confirm, before commenting on his theories. I agree that we have to study before commenting or criticizing anything. But, we need not ‘apply’ everything ourselves to ‘confirm’. If that were so, nobody will have the right to comment on homeopathy without practicing it. We cannot criticize allopathy without practicing it ourselves! To criticize astrology, I will have to practice astrology. To say robbery is wrong, I will have do robbery myself! To criticize corruption, I have to be corrupt? To comment on a theory, we have to ‘study’ it well, that is all.

I have commented on sankaran’s theories after studying it well. I need not practice it for that.

When anybody say only ‘animal drugs’ have to be used in people characterized by ‘vital level sensation of survival instincts’, I can comment on it on the basis of my knowledge of materia medica and drug proving. I need not ‘apply’ that method. I know many homeopathic drugs belonging to plant or mineral kingdoms having that charecteristics. I have applied those drugs in my homeopathic practice very successfully. Any homeopath, who has studied and applied materia medica knows that sankaran is wrong on this point.

Some friends have expressed their apprehension that criticizing wrong theories and practices happening in homeopathy in public will harm the good will and reputation of our community and our therapeutic system.

I do not subscribe to that view. All these ‘wrong things’ in homeopathy are done and promoted by their propagators in public, with out any concern about the harm they are doing, through articles, books, interviews and seminars all over the world, making homeopathy a topic of unending mockery before the scientific community. All these things are already known to general public better than homeopaths themselves.

These people have already done enough damage to homeopathy through their unscientific theories and nonsense practices. They supply arms and ammunition to skeptics to attack homeopathy. There is no meaning in covering up this dirt. Public dirt should be washed in public, to get the lost reputation and credibility of homeopathy back.

If homeopathic community continue let these people go like this, we cannot even dream about making homeopathy a scientific medical system, and get it recognized as such even in a far distant future.

In his Homeopathic Links interview, Vithoulkas says: “Sankaran alone has done more harm to homeopathy than all the enemies of homeopathy together.”

Andre Saine writes on his website: “Sankaran demonstrated several basic errors of methodology and reasoning in his example of how he ‘discovers’ a remedy”

How would the followers of Sankaran respond to these statements?

Collect all mentals, physical generals and particular symptoms of your patient, with all qualifications such as causations, sensations, locations, modalities and concomitants. Then grade the symptoms into uncommon, common, mental, physical general and particulars. Then repertorize. Compare the materia medica of drugs coming top in repertorization, and decide a similimum. That is the simple way of homeopathic practice- and the most successful way.

If a drug is similimum according to totality of symptoms, it does not matter whether that drug belongs to animal, mineral or plant kingdoms. It does not matter to which ‘sub kingdom’ or ‘family’ the drug belongs. Such a knowledge does not make any difference in your similimum.

Selecting similimum is most important in homeopathy. Similarity of symptoms is our guide in selecting similimum. All these talk about ‘kingdoms’, sub kingdoms, families and such things only contribute in making homeopathy complex, and confuse the young homeopaths. It may help in creating an aura around the teacher, which would attract people to seminars. That is not a silly thing, where money matters above homeopathy!

Scientific Homeopathy: Fight ‘Skeptics’ As Well As ‘Energy Medicine Homeopaths’

Scientific homeopathy can advance only by waging consistent and relentless struggle against pseudo-scientific ‘energy medicine’ homeopathic theoreticians on one side, and negative-mined skeptic community on other side.

For rational-mined people, any true observation or experience of a novel natural phenomenon would be inevitably followed by an inquiry for its logical explanations. People with a scientific approach would try to explain those experiences in terms of concepts of existing knowledge system. If the new observations could not be explained satisfactorily using existing theories, it results in the formulation of a system of learned assumptions known as hypothesis. Exactly, hypothesis means a proposed explanation or educated guess regarding the observed phenomenon. To be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test the hypothesis using available scientific tools and methodology. A hypothesis is called a working hypothesis once it is provisionally accepted as a candidate for scientific verification. Testability using existing scientific tools, simplicity, scope, fruitfulness and conservatism are considered to be the essential qualities of a working hypothesis. By conservatism, it is implied that assumptions of a good hypothesis should be fitting with existing recognized knowledge systems. Assumptions of these working hypothesis will be then subjected to rigorous verifications impartial and unprejudiced members of scientific community according to scientific methods, and if the outcomes are positive, it leads to a scientific theory and is accepted as part of scientific knowledge system. That is the way science advances.

There may be some experiences and observations that could not be easily explained using existing scientific paradigms, and formulating a scientifically viable hypothesis would be difficult. Even if they are formulated, a hypotheses may fail during scientific verifications, and will have to be abandoned temporarily or permanently. Some hypotheses could be modified, re-formulated and re-submitted for verification. But, abandoning of a particular hypothesis does not necessarily mean the experiences behind them were totally unreal or they do not exist. It only means that the proposed explanation failed. In some cases, formulating a reasonable hypothesis will be difficult. Skeptic minded people instantly deny the existence of such experiences, since they accept only experiences and observations that are ‘proved’. They consider that failure of a particular hypothesis proves the non-existence of such a phenomenon also. They fail to realize the difference between ‘unproved’ and ‘non-existent’. Beyond any doubt, there is a negative aspect in this skeptic approach.

Side by side with this negative and destructive approach of skeptics lie those pseudo-scientific people who spin imaginative ‘theories’ about every experiences without any consideration for existing knowledge system. They are never bothered about scientific methods or scientific verifications. People lacking scientific world outlook and rational thinking will float nonsense theories in a way fitting to their evil requirements, in a hurry to utilize such observations to justify and promote diverse pseudo-scientific practices they are engaged in. Both negative skepticism and pseudoscience complement each other in harming the evolution and advance of real scientific knowledge.

Exactly, homeopathy is based on two fundamental observations made by hahnemann regarding the process of cure-

1. Similia Similibus Curentur: Hahnemann observed through his experiments that diseases could be cured by extremely diluted forms of drug substances, which could produce symptoms similar to disease when applied in large doses in healthy individuals.

2. Potentization: Hahnemann developed a special process of preparing drugs by serial dilution and shaking, and observed that such expremely diluted drugs could act as therapeutic agents when applied according to similia similibus curentur

Due to the limitations imposed by the infantile stage of scientific knowledge available to him during that period, hahnemann could not formulate a viable hypothesis to explain his observation in a way fitting to the scientific knowledge system then existed. In fact, science was not properly equipped to provide a reasonable explanation for the phenomena hahnemann observed.

Instead of leaving his observations unexplained as it should have been truthfully done, hahnemann resorted to building up of a system of philosophical speculations and imaginative theorizations to explain them. May be since he found that the contemporary scientific paradigms were not sufficient for his purpose, he tried to develop a speculative philosophical system utilizing concepts such as ‘vital force’, ‘dynamic energy’ being part of spiritualistic philosophy existed then.

Obviously, this speculative part of homeopathy does not agree with scientific knowledge or its methods. As such, scientific community adopted a skeptical approach towards homeopathy. They totally denied the existence of even the fundamental observations of hahnemaan, whereas it would have been judicious to deny the theoretical explanations of homeopathy and asking for a more viable explanation for the phenomena hahnemann observed.

From a rational perspective, we have to logically differentiate between observational part of homeopathy from its speculative part. Observational part is objective experience, which forms the basis of practical application of similia similibus curentur and potentization. They should not be denied on the reason that hahnemann’s theoretical explanations contradict scientific knowledge.

Skeptical scientists deny homeopathy works on the reason that nobody could explain how homeopathy works. They should understand, both issues should be considered as different questions. The issue of efficacy of homeopathy should not be confused with the lack of explanations or wrong explanations regarding how homeopathy works.

Pseudoscientific homeopathic theoreticians, starting from hahnemann himself have contributed a lot in alienating homeopathy from scientific community, through their utter nonsense vitalistic and energy medicine theories that never agree with scientific knowledge system or scientific methods.

According to me, inorder to promote scientific homeopathy, we have to address fllowing preliminary tasks:

1. Convince the scientific community that homeopathy works, through demonstrations and scientifically acceptable clinical studies.

2. Convince them the importance of differentiating objective observational part of homeopathy from the unscientific theoretical or explanatory part of homeopathy.

3. Propose a scientifically viable working hypothesis regarding how homeopathy works, in a way fitting to the existing scientific knowledge system.

4. Prove the propositions of this hypothesis using scientific methods, in a way undisputable to the scientific community.

While addressing this four-pointed fundamental tasks, scientific homeopathy will have to relentlessly fight against the negative-minded skeptics as well as pseudo-scientific energy medicine theoreticians of homeopathy.

We have to consistently tell the world, real homeopathy is entirely different from those nonsense the pseudoscientific homeopathic theoreticians preach and practice.

We have to understand and tell the homeopathic community that the negative-minded anti-homeopathic skeptics are entirely different from real scientific community.

Dialogue has to be between scientific homeopathy and scientific community

Molecular Imprinted Drugs Will Provide A Converging Point For Homeopathy And Modern Molecular Medicine

In a far distant historical perspective, I foresee the possibility of converging of modern medicine and homeopathy into a universal molecular medical science of ‘drug-less therapy’, where only molecular imprints will be used as therapeutic agents.

Modern Medicine is gradually evolving into ‘Molecular Medicine’. Molecular Medicine studies vital processes and diseases at molecular level, and deals therapeutics as an art and science of molecular level repairing.

Molecular medicine is the most advanced, most scientific and most recently originated discipline in modern medical science. It is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of pathology, and to develop molecular interventions to correct those errors.

‘Molecular Medicine’ emphasizes disease and cure in terms of cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs common to conventional medicine.

Molecular Medicine studies drug substances in terms of their molecular level structure and organization, and is more and more relying upon target-specific Designer Drugs synthesized by drug designing technology, supported by computer aided designing protocols.

Drug Designing Technology has recently started exploring the possibilities of Molecular Imprinting in the development of target-specific designer drugs. They are now experimenting for developing bio-friendly imprinting matrices and imprinting protocols, so as to prepare artificial binding surfaces for pathogenic molecules that could be utilized as therapeutic agents.

Even though not yet recognized as such, homeopathic potentization is a process of molecular imprinting, where artificial binding sites for pathogenic molecules are produced by imprinting drug molecules into water-ethyl alcohol supra-molecular matrices. Homeopathy identifies pathological molecular errors and selects the appropriate molecular imprints through a peculiar technique of ‘comparing symptoms’, which is expressed as the therapeutic principle, ‘simila similibus curentur’

Most probably, modern molecular medicine and drug designing technology is in the new future going to explore the possibilities of water as a molecular imprinting medium as part of their search for novel substances to be utilized as imprinting matrix.

It means, Modern Molecular Medicine is slowly advancing towards the realization of a drug designing technology that homeopathy invented as ‘potentization’ and utilized for preparing therapeutic agents 250 years ago. It is based on this understanding that I try to propagate the concept that ‘Homeopathy is Molecular Imprinting Therapeutics- An Advanced Branch of Molecular Medicine.

In a far distant historical perspective, I foresee the possibility of converging of modern medicine and homeopathy into a universal molecular medical science of ‘drug-less therapy’, where only molecular imprints will be used as therapeutic agents. Instead of our present ‘potentization’, modern science may develop more sophisticated ways of molecular imprinting, that would enable us to produce therapeutic agents more specific and perfect than our present day ‘potentized drugs’.

May be be distant dream. But it is a dream based on scientific knowledge.

‘Drug Proving With High Potency Drugs’- A ‘Belief’ Never Verified By Well-Organised Experiments

Homeopaths have many deep-rooted ‘beliefs’- most of them very irrational and unscientific. But I am sure, they cannot be convinced by talking logic or science that goes against such beliefs.

Homeopaths ‘believe’ that ‘highly potentized’ drugs can produce symptoms, and can be used for ‘drug proving’. They believe it is dangerous to use potentized drugs without indications.

One homeopath claimed: “I once took a dose of medhorrinum 1M, because I really wanted to know more about Homeopathy, and I got a date of symptoms for some time (a month or less), most corresponded well to the set of symptoms described in materia medica for medhorrinum… So you say that high dilutions is not good for experimentations…. I think it is not correct…”

Pure rubbish. If he wanted to “know more about homeopathy”, this is not the way he should do experiments. Taking oneself ‘single dose’ of a drug and waiting for ‘its symptoms’ to appear! And he got symptoms of that drug for one month! And he considers he has ‘proved’ that “high dilutions are good for experimentation” beyond any doubt!

If he really wanted to ‘prove’ that potentized drugs can produce symptoms, he should conduct the experiments according to scientific method. Person who is subjected to experiment should not know which medicine he is taking. Person conducting the experiment should not know which drug is given to which individual. There should be enough controls also. Then we should try to identify the drugs from comparing the symptoms produced with symptoms in materia medica. Only when we succeed in identifying drugs from symptoms in such a well controlled blinded experiment, we can say we ‘proved’ that high potency drugs could produce symptoms.

Taking a dose of ‘known’ drug oneself, waiting for its symptoms for one month, and ascribing all symptoms you produced during one month to that single drug- it is a joke. After taking that ‘single dose’, he will be ‘taking’ diverse types of exogenous molecules into your body- through food, water, drinks, air and many many other environmental factors. All those molecules can produce symptoms in him. How can he say all symptoms produced for one month ‘after’ a ‘single dose of medorrhinum 1m’ were due that ‘single dose’?

Only homeopaths, blinded by ‘beliefs’ can make such claims. For them, everything that happens ‘after’ their dose is the ‘effect’ of that dose! They never bother to consider the variables involved! I know it is a waste of time arguing to convince them. They cannot be convinced by logic or science. They are ‘believers’.

Homeopathic drugs potentized above avogadro limit (12c) contain only ‘molecular imprints’. Molecular imprints are supramolecular nanostructures formed by hydrogen bonding of ethyl alcohol-water molecules, into which the 3-dimensional configuration of drug molecules are imprinted as nano-cavities. These nano-cavities can act as artificial binding sites for endogenous or exogenous molecules having configurational similarity to the molecules used for imprinting. We can say, molecular imprints are ‘artificial key-holes’ for pathogenic molecular keys.

Biochemical processes involves two aspects: 1.Binding of ligands to targets, which is determined by configurational affinity.2. Chemical transformation, which is determined by charge affinity of ligands and targets. Since ‘molecular imprints’ have only ‘configurational affinity’, without any ‘charge affinity’ towards biological molecules, potentized drugs cannot interfere in normal biological processes.

Molecular imprints contained in the potentized homeopathic preparations bind to ligands or biological molecules merely due to their complementary cofigurations without any charge affinity, whereas natural ligands bind to their biological target molecules in capacity of their appropriate spacial configurations as well as charge affinities. So, the bindings of molecular imprints with biological molecules or their ligands will be very temporary and cannot stay long. Such bindings of molecular imprints cannot replace the natural ligand-target interactions happening as part of vital processes. Molecular imprints can not compete with natural ligands in binding to their natural biological targets. Hence it is obvious that potentized homeopathic preparations cannot interfere in biological ‘ligand-target’ processes such as ‘substrate-enzyme’, ‘antigens-antibodies’, ‘signal-receptor’ etc. As such, chances of potentized homeopathic medicines acting as pathological agents are very rare even if used indiscriminately. Molecular imprints can interfere only in interactions between pathogenic molecules and biological molecules, as well as off-target bindings of ligands with biological molecules, where only configurational affinity is involved. Obviously, molecular imprints can act upon only the molecular blocks created by exogenous or endogenous foreign pathological molecules.

Molecular imprints contained in the potentized homeopathic preparations cannot successfully compete with natural ligands in binding with their biological target molecules, and hence, cannot interfere in the interactions between biological molecules and their natural ligands. Obviously, potentized drugs cannot produce any pathological molecular inhibitions in the organism or produce symptoms.

According to scientific view, ‘Similia Similibus Curentur’ means: ‘diseases caused by specific molecular inhibitions and expressed through specific groups of subjective and objective symptoms can be cured by potentized forms of drugs that could create similar pathologic molecular inhibitions and symptoms in healthy individuals if applied in crude form’. Same can be stated in a different way as: “pathological molecular inhibitions can be rectified using ‘molecular imprints’ of drug molecules that can create similar molecular inhibitions if applied in molecular form”.

Homeopathy utilizes ‘drug proving’ for studying the pathogenic properties of drug substances by observing their capacity to produce various pathological symptoms in healthy organisms. Homeopathy is based on the principle that a substance becomes a medicinal agent only because it has some disease-producing properties. In other words, if we could know what pathological inhibitions and symptoms a drug can create in healthy organism, we can decide in what disease states that drug could be used as a therapeutic agent in potentized form. Drug proving is unique to homeopathy. Whereas modern medicine studies the disease-curing properties of drugs, homeopathy studies the disease-producing properties of drugs. That makes a great difference.

Drug proving is done by administering small quantities of a particular drug to controlled volunteer groups of apparently healthy individuals. The subjective and objective symptoms, representing the diverse molecular deviations caused in the organism by the drug substance are carefully observed and recorded. These symptoms are systematically arranged compiled as materia medica of the substance used.

Let us examine what actually happens at molecular level during drug proving:

First point we have to note is that most drug substances, especially of vegetable or animal origin, are not ‘simple’ substance. Even if we use them as a ‘single’ substance, actually they consist of diverse types of individual molecules. A substance can interact with biological molecules only as individual molecules. If we really want to understand homeopathy and drug proving scientifically, we should first of all learn to perceive drug substance in terms of its diverse constituent molecules. Once we introduce a sample of drug substance into the living organism for ‘proving’, its constituent molecules are instantly subjected to various processes such as disintegration, ionization, hydration and certain chemical transformations.
Individual constituent molecules are carried and conveyed through blood and other internal transport systems into the cells and body fluids in different parts of the body. They can interact with various enzymes, receptors, and other biological molecules inside the organism. Individual drug molecules, in capacities of their molecular affinities, get themselves bound to various bio-molecules which participate in the essential biochemical activities in the organism. These interactions are decided and directed by the specific properties such as configurations and charges of active groups of individual drug molecules, and their specific affinity towards biological target molecules.

The three dimensional structure of the individual drug molecules, and that of the concerned bio-molecules are the decisive factors in this process of formation of molecular binding between them. This peculiarity is called molecular affinity. It is very important to note that drug substances interact with different biological molecules, not as a singular entity, but as individual constituent molecules and ions. These individual drug molecules and ions are capable of competing with natural ligands and substrates in binding to their biological targets, thereby inhibiting the essential bio-chemical processes which can take place only with their presence and mediation. Such molecular inhibitions in various bio-chemical pathways result in a condition of pathology, expressed in the form of a train of subjective and objective symptoms, due to the involvement of various neuro-mediator, neuro-transmitter and cellular signalling systems.

From this point of view, drug proving has to be done using molecular forms of drugs, since only they can produce real pathological molecular inhibitions in the organism.

Let us examine what actually happens when potentized drugs are administered into ‘apparently’ healthy individual individuals for drug proving. First point we need to remember is that ‘apparently’ healthy people will not be totally free from pathological molecular inhibitions. There will be diverse types of hidden molecular errors existing in them, arising from diverse types of factors such as nutritional, environmental, miasmatic, genetic, emotional, metabolic, infectious and others. When potentized drugs are introduced into the body, some or other molecular imprints contained in them may act upon these existing molecular inhibitions, which may be reflected as some transient symptoms. Actually, those symptoms are not indicating the ‘disease producing’ properties, but ‘diseases curing’ properties of concerned drugs. As such, symptoms obtained from drug proving using high potencies may confuse our materia medica.

Potentized drugs may act on ‘healthy’ organism by a different mechanism. Molecular imprints may bind to the natural ligands in the body, if they have any configurational affinity. But, such bindings will not lead to a state of pathology since molecular imprints cannot interfere in the interaction between natural ligands and targets which will have stronger affinity to each other. As such, symptoms appearing from such interactions will be very much temporary, and cannot be considered ‘pathological symptoms’.

Drugs potentized above 12c cannot cause pathological molecular inhibitions or produce symptoms. As such ‘drug proving’ with ‘high potencies’ is only a myth- ab false belief that is deep-rooted in the minds of homeopaths.

You Have The Right To Practice Any Occult You Like- But Don’t Say It Is Homeopathy!

One senior homeopath friend commented on my discussions regarding ‘energy medicine theories of homeopathy’:

“In fact I treat my patients with energy medicine apart from Homoeopathy and magnetic therapy. Energy medicine is there and practiced from 4000 years and Homoeopathy is 250 years old. Study some more and learn to know before commenting on any subject. 4000 years back no labs, no trials, still medicine was being given in many ways and patients were being treated too. Just because you would not believe energy medicine, you cant call it funny and mock at it. Energy medicine is having its own value and such comments would not change its place in the Universe. Never think you can attack somebody like this and you do not have any right to discuss the unknown subject in the group.”

My friend is gravely mistaken. I am not discussing the “”value” or ‘efficacy’ of energy medicine. Nor its historical relevance. I am not interested in ‘knowing’ it. I would not question anybody’s right to practice ‘energy medicine’, ‘magnetotherapy’ or anything like that “apart” from homeopathy. It is up to you to decide what you should practice.

I was commenting on the widely propagated theory that “homeopathy is energy medicine”. In that case, it is a different matter. I did not criticize ‘reflexology’ per se; I criticized the method of selecting similimum using reflexology David Little talk about. I have nothing if anybody practice radionics or dowsing; but when somebody theorizes about using radionics machines to select homeopathic drugs, I have the right to comment. The age old occult practice using hair as as medium existed here since antiquity. I am not bothered. But when somebody talks about homeopathic drug transmission to distance through hair, and conducts courses and seminars for homeopaths on that topic, it becomes a matter of concern for every homeopath. I am not bothered about the ‘water memory’ theory of Emoto or Rustom Roy. But when a homeopath claims he writes name of homeopathic similimum on paper, keeps it under a glass of water to ‘charge’ it and treats his patients with that ‘charged water’, you should not expect me me to keep silent. When a reputed homeopathy claims he recorded the homeopathic drug information as mp3 file and cured AIDS by playing it to patients, you have no right to ask me to keep mum.

Anybody can practice any occults or woodoo as he like “apart” from homeopathy, if law permits a ‘physician’ to do so. I don’t bother. But when you make homeopathy “part” of your occult practices, and spin ‘ultra-scientific’ theories about homeopathy to justify such practices, I have the right to intervene and comment. I am bothered only about homeopathy- not about your ‘energy medicine’ or occults. You keep them “apart”, I will not “attack” you.

Whether anybody is practicing or propagating CAM, ENERGY MEDICINE, FAITH HEALING or anything else is not my concern. It is for the law-enforcing authorities to decide whether a HOMEOPATH registered under the provision of CCH Act is permitted to engage in such practices ‘along’ with homeopathy. I do not intend to comment on it. I am questioning the widely propagated theory that ‘homeopathy is energy medicine’. I am questioning the practice of ‘homeopathic occults’ such as homeopathic drug transmission through hair, homeopathic drug transmission through photographs, mp3 file transmission, selecting similimum by radionics machine, dowsing and reflexology, and such things which gravely damage the scientific credentials of homeopathy. I object only when you make homeopathy a PART of ‘energy medicine’. Homeopathy is purely a method of ‘drug therapy’- not energy medicine or spiritual healing. Homeopathy should be understood, explained and practiced a MEDICAL SCIENCE. Homeopaths should be scientific medical professionals.

Regarding my “right to discuss the unknown subject in the group”, I would like to reserve my comments for the time being, hoping not to spoil our friendship. I expect you would discuss only “known” subjects hereafter.

Dana Ullman- Foremost Spokesman Of Pseudo-scientific ‘Energy Medicine’ Theories of Homeopathy

In his eagerness to defend  his most cherished ‘nanopharmacology’ concept, and to utilize it to provide a scientific glare to his ‘energy medicine’ theories, respected Dana Ullman now gives a new twist to nanoparticle theory of IIT scientists.

He says: “It doesn’t necessarily assert that it is the nanoparticles that have ALL of the impact. It could also mean that the nanoparticles change the entire sovent (the water medium)”

This is really a new contribution from dana ulman to nanoparticle theory. But it makes the whole puzzle more mysterious and complex, which is the actual intention of dana. By this statement, he is trying to utilize the ‘nanoparticle theory for justifying the most pseudoscientific ‘energy medicine theories’ in homeopathy’, of which he is a prominent proponent along with his CAM counterparts.

By this statement, he is trying to say that nanoparticles are not the real active principles of potentized drugs that makes “all impacts”, but they ‘change the whole solvent’ by inducing it to ‘vibrate’ exactly similar to ‘vibrations of drug substance’, and that these ‘immaterial dynamic vibrations’ are the active principles of potentized drugs! He would also say, these ‘vibrations’ will act upon ‘vital force’ in a ‘dynamic way’ by ‘resonance’ and produce cure!

SEE how cleverly the ‘energy medicine’ proponents twist and convert the nanoparticle theory proposed by IIT scientists in a way fitting to their pseudoscientific ‘dynamic energy- vibration-resonance-vital force’ frame work!!

His statement makes it very much obvious that dana ulmann and his ‘energy medicine’ friends are ‘supporting’ nanoparticle theory not to rationally resolve the riddles of homeopathy and make it more scientific, but hoping to utilize it to provide a ‘scientific’ glare to their nonsense ‘vibration’ theories.

Dana Ullman, who is claimed to be described by TIME magazine as “the Leading Proselytizer of Homeopathy” and ABC News touted as “Homeopathy’s Foremost Spokesman”, is a prominent proponent of ‘ultra-scientific’ ‘energy medicine’ theories in homeopathy that severely discredit the scientific credentials of homeopathy.

Please read his articles on his site and try to understand what he says about the mechanism of homeopathic drug action. He has no opinion of his own. He will quote many others, and say ‘it is said’, ‘it is believed’. He never commits to any theory. Same time, all  articles of Dana Ulman have an undercurrent of ‘energy medicine’ theories.

Energy medicine theory is the greatest enemy of scientific homeopathy. Scientific community will never accept homeopathy as a medical science, if we go on talking ‘energy medicine’. We have to use the paradigms of science, language of science, concepts of science, terms of science, methods of science. We should explain homeopathy as a science, fitting to modern biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology.

Dana Ulmann would be the first person to write articles supporting any emerging theories or new research reports appearing in homeopathy. As I already said, he instantly ‘supports’ every new theories, but commits to nothing. If you ‘accept’ a theory in its real sense, you will have to discard and disown its contradicting theories. Ulmann will ‘support’ molecular imprints, next day he will write an article supporting ‘energy medicine’ theories. Next day he will support nanoparticle theory. The moment the IIT B research report appeared in media, he wrote an article declaring ‘homeopathy is nanopharmacology’, same time adding that ‘nanopaticles’ act by ‘vibrations’ and ‘resonance’! It is a wonderful exercise. He never goes into the depth of any theory. He only quote others. His all articles always contains ‘it is said’ and ‘it is believed’. He ‘says’ nothing specific. He never antagonize any theory directly, but very cleverly utilize every new ‘researches’ to justify the ‘energy medicine concepts.

The flag-ship article of his website  “Why Homeopathy Makes Sense and Works-A Great Introductory Article for Advocates OR Skeptics of Homeopathy” clearly shows that he is is totally blank on “How Homeopathy Works”.

He admits “precisely how homeopathic medicines work remains a mystery according to present scientific thinking”. If it is a mystery, how could he claim it is “nano-pharmacology”?

In this article, he says homeopathy uses “nanodoses” of medicinal substances. Either he has no idea about what “nano” means, or he is not aware that drugs potentized above 12c or avogadro number cannot contain a single drug molecule. How can something that does not contain a ‘single’ molecule be ‘nano-doses’ of drug substance? To be “nano-doses”, there should be drug molecules present!

In the same article, Ulmann says Homeopathy works on the basis of ‘hormesis’. Hormesis is all about the biological actions of ‘small’ quantities of drugs. How could Ullman talk about hormesis knowing well that potentized drugs contain no drug substance? If you accept homeopathy as hormesis, you are obviously discarding the principles of homeopathic potentization. Homeopathy is not SMALL doses- it is NO doses!

DANA ULLMAN SAYS:  “One metaphor that may help us understand how and why extremely small doses of medicinal agents may work derives from present knowledge of modern submarine radio communications. Normal radio waves simply do not penetrate water, so submarines must use an extremely low frequency radio wave. However, the terms “extremely low” are inadequate to describe this specific situation because radio waves used by submarines to penetrate water are so low that a single wavelength is typically several miles long! If one considers that the human body is 70-80% water, perhaps the best way to provide pharmacological information to the body and into intercellular fluids is with nanodoses. Like the above mentioned extremely low frequency radio waves, it may be necessary to use extremely low (and activated) doses as used in homeopathic medicines, in order for a person to receive the medicinal effect.”

SEE ANOTHER ‘METAPHOR’:  “It is commonly known that certain species of moths can smell pheromones of its own species up to two miles in distance. It is no simple coincidence that species only sense pheromones from those in the same species who emit them (akin to the homeopathic principle of similars), as though they have developed exquisite and specific receptor sites for what they need to survive and to propagate their species. Likewise, sharks are known to sense blood in the water at distances, and when one considers the volume of water in the ocean, it becomes obvious that sharks, like all living creatures, develop extreme hypersensitivity for whatever will help ensure their survival. It is therefore not surprising that renowned astronomer Johann Kepler once said, “Nature uses as little as possible of anything.”

These are a very ‘funny’ metaphors only ‘Ulmanian logic’ can decipher relating with ‘how homeopathy works’.!

In the article “Nobel Prize-Winning Virologist’s New Research Gives Significant Support to Homeopathic Pharmacology” Ullman claims that Luc Montaigner’s researches using ‘aqueous dilutions’ of bacterial DNA supports homeopathic potentization, even though “homeopathy is not mentioned anywhere” by Montaigner. But Ullman conveniently ignores the fact that Montaigner never used dilutions above 12x, which is very much lower to avogadro limit. Upto 23x, there is always chance for original molecules to be present. Montaigner even said he could not detect any ‘electromagnetic signals’ above 18x. How can Ullman claim Montaigner proved the efficacy of ‘high dilutions’ used in homeopathy?

For my appraisal of Montaigner’s observations, go to this link:

Dana is never bothered or does not notice the fact that Montaigner’s ‘ghost dna’ theory and nanoparticle theory of IIT-B team contradict each other!. He ‘supports’ both theories!. That is a very special quality of Dana- he can support and promote any number of contradicting theories same time, without any ‘partiality’.  He commits to nothing. He would connect any contradicting theories using his ‘energy medicine’ theories of ‘electromagnetic radiations’ and ‘biomagnetic resonance’!  According to him, homeopathic medicines act by ‘resonance’, nanoparticles act by ‘resonance’, ‘ghost dna’ act by ‘resonance’. Life is ‘resonance’, disease is lack of ‘resonance’, cure is re-establishment of ‘resonance’. Everything could fit well into this ‘resonance’ theory- let it be homeopathy, faith healing, distant healing, radionics, dowsing, drug transmission or any occult practice. ‘Resonance’ and ‘radiations’ is the answer.

In his article “Homeopathic Medicine is Nanopharmacology”, Dana Ullman answers the question “How does homeopathy work” as follows:

“How homeopathic medicines work is presently a mystery. And yet, nature is replete with striking examples of the powerful effects of extremely small doses of active agents.

It is commonly known that certain species of moths can smell pheromones of its own species up to two miles away. Likewise, sharks are known to sense blood in the water at large distances.

I stress again that nanopharmacological doses will not have any effect unless the person is hypersensitive to the specific medicinal substance. Hypersensitivity is created when there is some type of resonance between the medicine and the person. Because the system of homeopathy bases its selection of the medicine on its ability to cause in overdose the similar symptoms that the sick person is experiencing, homeopathy’s “law of similars,” as it is called, is simply a practical method of finding the substance to which a person is hypersensitive.

The homeopathic principle of similars makes further sense when one considers that physiologists and pathologists now recognize that disease is not simply the result of breakdown or surrender of the body but that symptoms are instead representative of the body’s efforts to fight infection or adapt to stress. Fever, inflammation, pain, discharge, and even high blood pressure are but a small number of the common symptoms that the organism creates in order to defend and to try to heal itself.

Over 200 years of experience by homeopathic physicians hav found that a homeopathic medicine acts longer and deeper when it is more potentized. Although no one knows precisely why this happens, it is conjectured that highly potentized nanopharmacological doses can more deeply penetrate cells and the blood-brain barrier than less potentized medicines. Although there is no consensus on why these ultramolecular doses work more deeply, there is consensus from users of these natural medicines that they do.

One cannot help but sense the potential treasure-trove of knowledge that further research in homeopathy and nanopharmacology will bring in this new millennium.”



Only thing I got is he explains “law of similars,” as “simply a practical method of finding the substance to which a person is hypersensitive”, and this “hypersensitivity is created when there is some type of resonance between the medicine and the person”. According to Dana that is how homeopathy works- “resonance between medicine and person”! He pretends to be talking science by saying ‘homeopathy is nanopharmacology’, whereas his ‘nano-pharmocology’ has nothing to do with modern nanotechnology or pharmacology.  His ‘nano pharmacology’ acts by resonance!

That is the wonderful quality of Dana Ullman’s writings. He talks a lot, he writes a lot- of course in a very knowledgeable and ‘scientific’ language. But nobody gets nothing from him. Everything begins in mystery and ends in mystery.

And you should know, he is “the Leading Proselytizer of Homeopathy” and “Homeopathy’s Foremost Spokesman” in western world”!

My request to Dan Ullman is, he should be a little more cautious and consistent  while explaining homeopathy. Being the most noted  “Foremost Spokesman” of homeopathy, he should be more responsible. While saying homeopathy is ‘hormesis’, ‘small doses’ and ‘nanopharmacology’, he should be aware that he is contradicting the concept of homeopathic potentization. He should try to explain how potentized drugs, even without a single drug molecule contained them, act therapeutically on the basis of ‘similia similibus curentur’. Any reasonable theory about homeopathy should explain what actually happens during potentization, what are the active principles of potentized drugs, and what is the exact molecular mechanism by which these active principles produces a therapeutic effect. We should explain potentization and similia similibus curentur in a way fitting to modern scientific knowledge. Most importantly, we should be consistent in our explanation, whatever it be.

Dana Ullman should always remember, there is an elite and skeptic  scientific community keeping watchful eyes on whatever he says. He should be cautious not to provide new arms and ammunition to them to attack homeopathy, by making inconsistent and self-contradicting statements and promoting obviously unscientific theories about homeopathy.

I would expect Dana Ulman to provide specific answers to following direct questions, if he is serious in his inquiry ‘how homeopathy works’

1. What exactly happens during potentization? What is the exact process involved?

2. What are the active principles of potentized drugs?

3. What is the exact process by which these active principles of potentized drugs interact with the organism and produce a therapeutic effect?

4. How would you explain ‘similia similibus curentur’ in the light of your understanding of potentization and therapeutic action of potentized drugs?

‘Fear of Suppression’- Prominent Symptom of Homeopaths Suffering From Severe Deficiency of Scientific Knowledge

Fear of ‘suppression of disease’ that may happen from ‘improper’ use of homeopathic drugs is the most prominent symptom of any ‘classical homeopath’, which indicates severe deficiency of scientific knowledge regarding the biochemistry of life, disease and cure. This ‘phobia’ is ‘inherited’ through generations of homeopaths, from ‘teachers’ to ‘students’, and ‘gurus’ to ‘disciples’. Modern ‘Gurus’ spin fanciful ‘theories of suppressions’, write and sell heavy books on their ‘theories’, and fly around the globe to conduct ‘expensive’ seminars to ‘educate’ the homeopathic community for the sole purpose of saving humanity from grave dangers imposed by homeopathic ‘suppressions’.

Those who are severely afflicted with this ‘deficiency syndrome’ will hesitate to prescribe even a single dose of potentized drug to their patient, fearing it may ‘drive in’ the disease from ‘external parts’ to ‘vital’ internal organs if the prescription somehow happens not to be the ‘most appropriate similimum’. They would shudder with fear of dangers of ‘suppression’ if somebody says they have applied some external ointments on eczematous lesion on the skin. According to them, homeopathic drugs are so ‘powerful’ and ‘dangerous’ that an inappropriate or untimely dose of a potentized drug may even kill the patient, or create irreversible disabilities. ‘Better not to prescribe, than prescribing wrongly and causing suppressions’.

Once in a seminar, I witnessed a ‘teacher’ dramatically presenting an incident of dangerous consequences of ‘homeopathic suppression’ he experienced by applying an untimely dose of lachesis 200 to his patient. He had given a ‘single’ dose of lachesis 200 to a 55 year old male patient for eczema. Patient came next week and reported improvement. No repetition of dose was necessary, but the physician wrongly happened to give one more ‘dose’ of lachesis 200. That night, he got a phone call from the wife of the patient, informing that her husband was admitted to ICU due to a massive cardiac arrest. The physician instantly realized that cardiac arrest was caused by the ‘driving in’ of eczema into heart, which is a ‘vital organ’ belonging to ‘inner layer’, due to the untimely repetition of lachesis. Physician was very sorry to have committed that ‘crime’, even though unknowingly. He concluded his demonstration with these remarks: ‘whereas allopathic drugs are missiles, our potentized drugs are atom bombs- handle it very caustiously’! Nobody in the seminar hall asked the question whether a ‘single dose’ of lachesis 200 can induce a coronary block and cardiac arrest!

That ‘teacher’ failed to understand that coronary thrombosis and cardiac arrest is the ultimate out come of a slow and long  process of hyperlipidemia, degenerative changes of arteries, atherosclerosis and arterial blockage happening through years, which cannot happen with in 12 hours of administering an ‘untimely’ dose of lachesis 200. Even if that ‘dose’ was not given, that state of cardiac emergency would have happened. The most funny thing about homeopaths is that what ever happens to their patient after a ‘dose’, they would relate it with that ‘dose’ and reach conclusions. Homeopaths consider every ‘before-after’ relationship as ‘cause-effect’ relationship. We have earlier seen somewhere a ‘guru’ saying a “fracture happening on right arm after a dose of lachesis shows that the disease is travelling from left to right”!

I am ready to consume 30ml of lachesis 200 as ‘single dose’ with out any fear of cardiac arrest in a public place if anyone need a demonstration.

One of the most fanciful modern theories regarding ‘suppression’ is that constructed by combining ‘Hering laws’ and ‘embryonic layers’.

According to proponents of this theory, genuine cure happens only if the curative process follows the ‘Hering laws of directions of cure’: symptoms should disappear in the reverse chronological order of their appearance in disease, symptoms should travel from internal parts of body to external parts, symptoms should travel from more vital organs to less vital organs, symptoms should travel from ‘upper’ parts of the body to ‘lower’ parts.

As per this theory, any drug effect that does not ‘follow’ these directions cannot be considered ‘curative’, but ‘suppressions’! ‘Guru’ colored this ‘hering laws a little more ‘scientific’, by relating it with his theory of ‘embryonic layers’ of organ development. To give a scientific touch to his theories, he utilized the concept of ‘germ layers’ in embryology. Since ‘embryo’ develops from a three-layered structure having endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm in its initial stage, disease and cure have to be perceived and treated in in relation with these ‘layers’. According to his reasoning, during embryonic development, organs develop from endoderm to ectoderm, ‘outer’ organs belonging to ‘ectoderm’ are least  important, organs belonging to mesoderm are comparatively more important, and  ‘inner’ organs belonging to ‘endoderm’ are most ‘vital’ organs of an organism. Disease always ‘travels’ in a reverse order, from ‘external’ layer to ‘inner’ layer, and hence, cure should take place from ‘inner’ organs to ‘outer’ organs. By this way, he relates his theory of embryonic layers with hering laws, thereby creating a ‘scientific’ foundation for his ‘theory of suppressions’. He theorizes that genuine cure should be in a direction from inner layer to outer layer, and if it happens in reverse order, the disease will be ‘suppressed’, which is not at all desirable.

‘Hering laws’ and ‘embryonic layers’ are the foundation of this ‘theory of suppression’.

When we go deeper into the history of homeopathy, it would be clear that there was not any mention of such ‘hering laws’ in the works of even Hering or his contemporaries. Actually, it was the ‘observation’ made by hahnemann that curative process has some ‘order’, but he never called it a law. Hering has mentioned in his earlier works about hahnemann’s ‘four observations regarding order of cure’, but finally in 1875 he wrote only about a single direction of cure: ‘in the reverse direction of disease process’. He never called it or expected to be known as ‘herings laws’. None of his famous contemporaries and close colleagues ever discussed or made any reference to a law of direction of cure. Writings of Boenninghausen, Jahr, Joslin, P.P. Wells, Lippe, H.N.Guernsey, Dunham, E.A. Farrington, H.C. Allen, Nash, etc, were all silent.

It was  ‘KENT’ who later actually called it ‘Herings laws’ and converted these four observations into ‘fundamental laws’ of homeopathic cure. He taught to understand and apply these ‘laws’ in a mechanical way. He taught homeopaths to consider ‘hering laws’ regarding ‘directions of cure’ as one of the ‘fundamental laws’ of homeopathy, similar to ‘similia similibus curentur’.Kentmade homeopaths believe that drug effects that do not agree with these ‘laws’ cannot be considered ‘curative’, and are ‘suppressive’.

Dr. André Saine, D.C., N.D., F.C.A.H, Dean of the Canadian Academy of Homeopathy, who made extensive studies on this topic says:

 “When Hering died in 1880, colleagues all over the world assembled to pay tribute to the great homeopath. His many accomplishments were recalled. Strangely, none made any mention of a law of direction of cure promulgated by Hering. Arthur Eastman, a student who was close to Hering during the last three years of the venerable homeopath, published in 1917 Life and Reminiscences of Dr. Constantine Hering also without mentioning a law pertaining to direction of cure. Calvin Knerr, Hering’s son-in-law, published in 1940, 60 years after Hering’s death, the Life of Hering, a compilation of biographical notes.  Again no mention is made of the famous law”

“In 1865, Hering described these observations not as a law but as Hahnemann’s general observations or as plain practical rules. Essentially he emphasizes the proposition that the ‘symptoms should disappear in the reverse order of their appearance during the treatment’ of patients with chronic psoric diseases. In 1875, Hering discussed only one proposition, that the ‘symptoms will disappear in the reverse order of their appearance’. The three other propositions are now not mentioned at all. All the illustrious contemporaries of Hering seems to remain silent on this point, at least as far as available literature shows. In 1911,Kent, almost arbitrarily, calls the original observations of Hahnemann “Hering’s law”.

Logically, according to the latest observations made by Hering in 1875, he only meant that “all genuine ‘curative processes’ should happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes”.

Over-extending and mechanical application of ‘herings laws’ without understanding their exact premises and scientific meaning may lead to grave errors regarding interpretation of curative processes and drug effects.

This phenomenon could be explained in the light of modern scientific understanding of ‘cascading of pathological molecular inhibitions’ and complex dynamics of ‘bio-molecular feed back mechanisms’.

To understand this explanation, one has to equip himself with at least a working knowledge regarding the concepts of modern biochemistry regarding the bio-molecular inhibitions involved in pathology and therapeutics.

Expect those diseases which are purely due to errors in genetic substances, and those diseases which are due to genuine deficiency of building materials of biological molecules, all other diseases are considered to be caused by ‘molecular inhibitions’. Pathogenic molecules of endogenous or exogenous origin bind to some biological molecules in the organism, causing ‘molecular inhibitions’ which lead to pathological derangement in associated biochemical pathways. These pathogenic molecules may be of infectious, environmental, nutritional, metabolic, drug-induced, miasmatic or any other origin. Derangements in biochemical pathways are expressed through diverse groups of subjective and objective symptoms. This is the fundamental biochemistry of pathology.

Molecular inhibitions happening in a biological molecule due to the binding of a pathogenic molecule initiates a complex process of ‘cascading of molecular errors’ and ‘bio-feedback mechanisms’ in the organism. Errors happening in a particular biochemical pathway leads to errors in another pathway which is dependant on the first pathway for regular supply of metabolites, which further lead to errors in another pathway. This ‘cascading of molecular errors’ happens through successive stages, which is expressed through new subjective and objective symptoms. This ‘cascading’ is behind what we call ‘advancing of disease’ into new systems and organs, exhibiting ever new groups of associated symptoms. For an observer, this cascading appears in the form of ‘traveling of disease’ from one system into another. Along with these ‘cascading’ of molecular errors, there happens a series of activation and shutting down of complex ‘bio-molecular feedback’ mechanisms also. The phenomenon of ‘advancing of diseases’ should be studied in this scientific perspective of modern biochemistry.

When a molecular inhibition happens in some biological molecule ‘A’ due to binding of a pathogenic molecule ‘a’, it actually stops or decreases some essential molecular conversions that are essential part of a complex biochemical pathway P.  If ‘G’ is the normal ligand of ‘A’, and ‘g’ is the product of biochemical interaction involving ‘A’, the result of this molecular inhibition is that ‘G’ accumulates on one side, and ‘g’ is not available for the next stage of molecular processes. Accumulating ‘P’ may induce a feedback mechanism leading to reduction or stoppage its production itself, or may move to other parts of organism and bind to unwanted molecular targets, initiation a new stream of pathological derangement.

Obviously, ‘traveling’ of disease or ‘advancing’ of disease happens through cascading of molecular errors in various biochemical pathways. Some disease processes may ‘travel’ from ‘external’ to internal organs, some from ‘lower parts’ to upper parts, some from ‘less vital’ parts to ‘more vital’ parts. All these ‘traveling’ is basically decided by the involved biochemical pathways. It would be wrong to generalize these observations in such a way that ‘all diseases travel from exterior to interior, lower parts to higher parts,  and less vital to more vital parts’. It is also wrong to generalize in such a way that ‘curative process always travel from interior to exterior, above downwards, and from vital to less vital parts’. This is mechanical understanding and application of hering’s observations.

Actually, curative processes happens in a direction opposite to the direction of disease process. That depends upon the biochemical pathways involved and the exact dynamics of cascading of molecular inhibitions. Its dynamics is very complex, and should not be interpreted and applied in a mechanistic way. When ‘molecular inhibitions’ underlying the disease processes are systematically removed using molecular imprints, the curative process also would take place in the reverse direction of disease processes.

To sum up, Hering’s observations regarding a ‘directions of disease and cure’ is a valuable one, but it should be studied in the light of modern biochemistry.

Curative processes happen in a direction just reverse to disease processes”- that is the sum total of Hering’s observations regarding ‘directions of cure’.

It is well obvious that the modern “theories of suppressions’ claimed to be based on hering’s laws stands on a historically and scientifically weak foundation.

Let us now examine the theory of ‘embryonic layers’, which forms the second pillar of ‘theory of suppression’.

Essentially, Dr Vijayakar, in his ‘theory of suppressions’,  charts the development of the human embryo in seven stages, from the cells and mind to the neural plate, neuro-endocrine system, mesoderm, connective tissues, endoderm, and its eventual cornpletion at the ectoderm. According to him, all of the organs of the body derive from these seven layers of development. To illustrate, the GI tract is formed as part of the endoderm, whilst the kidneys were formed earlier in the mesoderm.

Vijayakar reasons that as natural embryonic growth progresses from the inside to the outside (even our bones develop this way), disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside to the inside- from the ectoderm to the endoderm, from the endoderm to the mesoderm- deeper and deeper. So if you know which parts of the body are associated with each level you can clearly see the progression of disease”.

Which text book of embryology says about the development of human embryo starting from “cells and mind”? Is it vijaykar’s invention? Embryology never deals with ‘mind’, but only ‘cells’. Obviously, vijaykar wanted to make a theory seemingly scientific utilizing some concepts borrowed from genetics, but same time he wanted to establish that ‘mind’ is primary in the development of embryo. Hence, he added the word ‘mind’ along with ‘cells’ while describing the initial stages of embryonic development. According to his interpretation of ‘embryology’, development of human embryo ‘starts’ from ‘cells and mind’, then advances “to the neural plate, neuro-endocrine system, mesoderm, connective tissues, endoderm, and its eventual completion at the ectoderm”.

 Embryology says: “The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop: the innermost layer, or endoderm, gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder; the middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system and skin”

‎”A germ layer, occasionally referred to as a germinal epithelium, is a group of cells, formed during animal embryogenesis. Germ layers are particularly pronounced in the vertebrates; however, all animals more complex than sponges (eumetazoans and agnotozoans) produce two or three primary tissue layers (sometimes called primary germ layers). Animals with radial symmetry, like cnidarians, produce two germ layers (the ectoderm and endoderm) making them diploblastic. Animals with bilateral symmetry produce a third layer between these two layers (appropriately called the mesoderm) making them triploblastic. Germ layers eventually give rise to all of an animal’s tissues and organs through the process of organogenesis”

“The endoderm is one of the germ layers formed during animal embryogenesis. Cells migrating inward along the archenteron form the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm.

‘The endoderm consists at first of flattened cells, which subsequently become columnar. It forms the epithelial lining of the whole of the digestive tube except part of the mouth and pharynx and the terminal part of the rectum (which are lined by involutions of the ectoderm). It also forms the lining cells of all the glands which open into the digestive tube, including those of the liver and pancreas; the epithelium of the auditory tube and tympanic cavity; the trachea, bronchi, and air cells of the lungs; the urinary bladder and part of the urethra; and the follicle lining of the thyroid gland and thymus”

“The endoderm forms: the stomach, the colon, the liver, the pancreas, the urinary bladder, the lining of the urethra, the epithelial parts of trachea, the lungs, the pharynx, the thyroid, the parathyroid, and the intestines.”

‎”The mesoderm germ layer forms in the embryos of triploblastic animals. During gastrulation, some of the cells migrating inward contribute to the mesoderm, an additional layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. The formation of a mesoderm led to the development of a coelom. Organs formed inside a coelom can freely move, grow, and develop independently of the body wall while fluid cushions and protects them from shocks. The mesoderm forms: skeletal muscle, the skeleton, the dermis of skin, connective tissue, the urogenital system, the heart, blood (lymph cells), the kidney, and the spleen.”

‎”The ectoderm is the start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers. The ectoderm forms: the central nervous system, the lens of the eye, cranial and sensory, the ganglia and nerves, pigment cells, head connective tissues, the epidermis, hair, and mammary glands. Because of its great importance, the neural crest is sometimes considered a fourth germ layer. It is, however, derived from the ectoderm”.

“The “ectoderm” is one of the three primary germ cell layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior layer. It emerges first and forms from the outer layer of germ cells. Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain), tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument). It also forms the lining of mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair and nails”.

“In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm (also known as surface ectoderm), the neural crest, and neural tube. The latter two are known as neuroectoderm”.

Please note this point: The fertilized ovum “develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop: the innermost layer, or endoderm, gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder; the middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system; the outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system and skin”

It is obvious that brain and nervous system develops from ‘ectoderm’ layer. It is the ‘outermost’ layer of embryo, not ‘innermost’. The theory of vijaykar that ‘brain and mind’ belongs to innermost embryonic layer is pure nonsense. They develop from ‘outermost’ embryonic layer called ‘ectoderm’, from which organs such as skin and hair also develops.  His theory that embryonic development ‘starts’ with ‘mind’ and ‘ends’ with ‘ectoderm’ has nothing to do with embryology, except that he plays with some terms used in embryology.

Vijayakar reasons that as natural embryonic growth progresses from the inside to the outside, disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside to the inside. This is the most fundamental ‘reasoning’ of vijaykar, which he utilizes to build a common ground with ‘hering laws regarding directions of cure’ on which his whole ‘theoretical system is built upon. We already saw that the concept ‘direction of embryonic development’ on which his ‘reasoning’ is itself totally baseless. Embryonic development does not start from ‘inner’ organs of endoderm and ‘complete’ with ‘outer’ organs of ectoderm’ as vijaykar tries to establish.

Even if the direction of ‘embryonic development’ was from ‘inner layer to outer layer’, what is the logic behind his ‘reasoning’ that ‘disease and ill-health will inevitably move in the reverse direction, i.e. from the outside to the inside”?

Most funny thing regarding this ‘reasoning’ is that it goes against the fundamental concept of disease accepted by ‘classical homeopathy’ that ‘diseases originate in the level of vital force’. Vijaykar says ‘direction od disease is from ‘outermost layer’ to ‘innermost layer’. Should we understand that ‘vital force’ belongs to ‘outermost’ layer of organism according to the interpretation of Vijayakar? Both cannot be right by any way. Either vijaykar should say that diseases originate in ‘vital force’ which is the ‘innermost layer’, or he should say disease start in the ‘outermost’ layer, that is skin and hair.

Since vijaykar has gone totally wrong and self contradicting in his understanding of embryonic layers and ‘direction of embryonic development’, his explanation of ‘hering law’ based on his ‘reasoning’ is pure nonsense.

It is clear that Vijayakar’s understanding of ‘herings laws as well as ‘embryonic layers’ is fundamentally wrong. His ‘Theory of Suppressions’ and the ‘Methods’ based on these wrong foundations are obviously untenable.

In ‘chronic diseases’, hahnemann was talking about the chronic constitutional effects of infectious diseases such as itch, syphilis and gonorrhoea. He thought that these chronic disease dispositions caused by infectious diseases were due to their ‘suppression’ through faulty allopathic medications and external applications. He called these ‘chronic dispositions’ as ‘miasms’. Actually, these chronic dispositions after infectious diseases were not due to any suppression, but the ‘off-target’ effects of antibodies formed against infections. Hahnemann could not understand this ‘antibody factor’ of chronic miasms. That is due to the historical limitations of scientific knowledge available during his period. ‘Historical limitations’ is different from being ‘wrong’.

Modern theories of suppressions are different. They are theorizing about suppressions caused by ‘improper’ application of homeopathic drugs. Those theories are different from what hahnemann considered suppressions.

Theories of suppression as ‘driving in’ of diseases to ‘inner vital organs’ by application of ‘wrong’ drugs is based on an exaggerated application of hering laws and a total misinterpretation of embryology. I was examining thse theoreticalfoundations of modern ‘theory of suppression’. Hering law is over extended, and ’embryological layers’ is mis-interpreted. Logical scrutiny shows that both these theoretical foundations of ‘theory of suppression’ are wrong. That is my point here.

Concept of ‘suppressions’ is based on unscientific understanding of disease, cure, potentization and ‘similia similibus curentur. Scientific awareness is the only way to free homeopaths from the persistent fear of ‘suppressions’, and enable them to make logical prescriptions without any hesitations and forebodings. Understanding the biochemistry of life, disease and cure is essential for this. Homeopaths should realize the exact process of molecular imprinting involved in potentization, and perceive potentized drugs in terms of constituent molecular imprints. They should also learn the molecular mechanism of homeopathic therapeutics as removal of pathological molecular inhibitions by the action of molecular imprints.  Homeopaths would then realize that no potentized homeopathic drugs can make any ‘suppression’ or ‘dangerous consequences’. If the selection of similimum was wrong, it will not act. If the selected drug is ‘partial similimum’, it would give partial cure. In that case, cure can be completed by using additional drugs, which are indicated by totality of remaining symptoms.

Managing ‘Constitutional’ Aspects of ‘Acute’ Diseases and ‘Acute’ Phases of Chronic Diseases Through ‘Total Cure’ Prescriptions

Let us now consider the theoretical and practical issues related to the homeopathic management of so-called ‘acute diseases’ and ‘chronic diseases’ in the light of our scientific understanding of ‘miasms’, ‘constitution’ and ‘susceptibility’.

Actually these areas are fertile breeding grounds for all sorts of non-productive speculations, theorizations, analyses and futile intellectual exercises, making everything complex and leading young homeopaths into a state of unending confusion and disorientation. Same time, these confusions help the commercially branded ‘teachers and gurus’ to attract people into their seminar halls, generating un-exhausting flow of revenue for them.

Any discussions regarding the differences in the management of ‘acute’ and ‘chronic’ diseases inevitably lead to the study of concepts such as ‘constitutions, miasms’ and susceptibility’.

In most chronic diseases coming to a physician, there will be always an ‘acute’ aspect consisting of most ‘troublesome’ complaints experienced for the time being, for which the patient needs immediate relief.

Same way, even in so-called pure ‘acute diseases’ such as epidemic fevers, digestive problems, headaches and a host of clinical conditions belonging to that category, a homeopathic physician will have to consider an underlying  ‘constitutional’ aspect, which consist of genetic , constitutional and miasmatic susceptibilities of the individual, that modulates the molecular level pathology and symptomatic expressions of acute disease .

Homeopathic management of ‘acute diseases’ obviously includes management of their underlying ‘constitutional’ aspects and susceptibilities also.

Similarly, a homeopathic physician will have to address the ‘acute phases’ consisting of most immediate, troublesome part of complaints of his patient, while treating a ‘chronic’ or ‘constitutional’ disease.

‘Managing acutes’ actually involves both these categories of complaints.

Homeopathy, based on the therapeutic principle of ‘similia similibus curentur’ is intended to be a simple method of therapeutics. Collecting all the subjective and objective symptoms  expressed by the ‘patient’, selecting ‘similimum’ by comparing ‘totality’ of these symptoms with symptomatology of drug pathogenesis available in our material medica, and applying the similimum in ‘potentized’ forms in ‘appropriate’ doses and intervals. Simply put, that is the simple art of homeopathy.

‘Susceptibility’ plays a great role in pathology and therapeutics of acute as well as chronic diseases. Managing ‘susceptibility’ of individual patient is important not only in chronic diseases, but acute diseases also.

But the ‘susceptibility’ I am talking about is a concept fundamentally different from the theory of ‘susceptibility ‘classical homeopaths’ propagate.

Classical homeopaths consider ‘susceptibility’ of the individual as the fundamental ‘cause’ of disease.  According to them, ‘susceptibility’ is a property of ‘vital force’, which is a ‘dynamic’, ‘non-material’, ‘non-corporeal’, ‘conceptual’ and spiritual entity that enlivens and governs the organism from the ‘interior’. As such, ‘susceptibility’ to diseases is also ‘dynamic’. As per this concept, ‘classical’ homeopaths would persistently argue that even so-called ‘infectious diseases’ are not caused by bacteria or viruses, but the ‘internal susceptibility’, dynamic in nature. They say: “Small pox virus is not the cause of smallpox, vibrio cholerae is not the cause of cholera”. According to this theory, homeopathy is not involved with ‘treating infections’, but ‘correcting’ the susceptibility.

‘Susceptibility’ in scientific medical terms means the ‘biochemical state or character of being susceptible to disease’.  Internal biochemical environment of the organism, which is also more or less influenced by external environment, plays a role in deciding the ‘susceptibility’ of the individual to diseases including infections. ‘Causative’ agents of diseases are expressed in a biochemical background of ‘susceptibility’.

In order to promote a scientific perspective in homeopathy, we should understand and explain ‘susceptibility’ as the ‘state of internal biochemical environment of the organism that facilitates diseases’. Internal biochemical environment that decide ‘susceptibility’ consist of diverse factors belonging to following categories: Genetic factors, Nutritional factors, Miasmatic factor, Immunological factors, metabolic factors, emotional factors, Drug-induced factors and Environmental factors.

‘Susceptibility’ can be managed for the better using potentized homeopathic drugs selected as similimum considering the totality of physical generals, mentals and miasmatic molecular errors of the individual. This indicates the importance of ‘constitutional prescriptions’ even in so-called acute diseases.

Miasms is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of an individual. It is part of ‘biochemical environment’.  I am using the word miasms in the meaning of ‘chronic disease dispositions arising from ‘off-target’ molecular inhibitions caused by ‘antibodies’ generated against ‘infectious agents and other exogenous proteins.  Possibility of presence of one or more types of miasms existing an individual has to be taken into consideration while considering the ‘susceptibility’ aspect of acute as well as chronic diseases.

Obviously, identifying and removal of these ‘off-target’ molecular blocks or ‘miasms’ caused by antibodies or ‘molecular imprinted proteins’ is an important part in the treatment of chronic diseases and management of constitutional aspects of acute diseases . Observing and collecting the whole history of infections and intoxications that might have generated antibodies are important in the management of chronic diseases. History of skin infections, venereal infections, stings of poisonous creatures, vaccinations, serum/antibiotic treatments, sensitization with protein foods  etc. has to be collected in detail and appropriate ‘anti-miasmatics’ included in the homeopathic treatment protocols.

This is an era of vaccinations. Every human being is subjected to a series of vaccination protocols from the moment of birth, to protect from various diseases. We have to worry about the unknown long term after effects of these vaccinations. Live or attenuated viruses are introduced into the organism to produce antibodies against pathological infections. Actually, this process induces ‘molecular imprinting’ of native proteins, with the foreign proteins contained in the vaccines. Obviously, the molecular imprints or antibodies thus formed, shall act as ‘miasms’ in the organism. That means, we have to study the history of vaccinations in an individual while considering miasms.

I think it would be more logical and scientific if we understand ‘constitution’ in terms of ‘phenotypes’ of individuals. To understand and explain ‘constitutions’ in scientific terms, we have to understand the concepts of ‘genotypes’ and ‘phenotypes’ in modern genetics.

According to modern genetics, the ‘genotype’ is the ‘genetic substance or ‘DNA’ inherited by the organism from its previous generation. It is called the ‘genetic blue print’.

The ‘genotype’ contained the organism gives rise to individual ‘phenotypes through ‘gene expressions’. The ‘genetic code’ stored in DNA is interpreted by ‘gene expression’, and the properties of these expressions five rise to the ‘phenotype’ of the organism.

A ‘phenotype’ is the observable characteristics or traits of an organism, such as morphology, development, biological and physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior.  ‘Phenotype’ is the result of ‘gene expressions’, which is decided by the interaction between genetic blue print and environmental factors.

Factors, such as such as miasmatic, environmental, nutritional, occupational, infectious, emotional, ontogenic, metabolic and xenobiotic influence the process of ‘gene regulation’ at various stages of ‘gene expression’, through which the particular ‘phenotype’ or ‘constitution’ of the individual organism is determined. As such, ‘constitution’ of an individual is the ‘phenotype’ determined by the ‘protein constitution’ developing through ‘genetic expression’. ’Constitution’ is expressed in the form of totality of general physical symptoms, morphology, mental symptoms and behavioral peculiarities.

It is obvious from above analysis that management of ‘acutes’, whether it be ‘acute phases’ of chronic diseases or purely ‘acute’ diseases themselves, we cannot ignore the over all internal biochemical environment or ‘susceptibility’ of the individual, which consist of ‘constitution’ determined by ‘genotype-phenotype’ interactions and miasms determined by history of infections and vaccinations.

Constitutions, and overall internal biochemical environment of an individual is expressed through ‘symptoms’ belonging to subjective and objective physical generals and mental generals. As such, similimum selected on the basis of those categories of symptoms should be an integral part of homeopathic management of chronic as well as acute diseases. Anti-miasmatic drugs such as nosodes and sarcodes also should be incorporated.

Same time, a conscientious and responsible physician cannot and and should not ignore the management of ‘acute complaints’, which are most distressing problems for the patient demanding immediate relief. Such ‘acute’ problems can be effectively relieved by drugs selected on the basis of ‘locations-sensations-modalities- concomitants’ of those acute complaints. Such a similimum is called ‘pathological similimum’

Judiciously combining ‘constitutional similimum’, ‘pathological similimum’ and ‘anti-miasmatic drugs’ a homeopathic physician can effectively manage chronic as well as acute diseases. This is called a ‘total cure prescription’.

A homeopath should know how to manage ‘constitutional’ aspects while treating an ‘acute disease’, and manage  ‘acute complaints’ while treating a ‘chronic’ disease. Do not ignore ‘acutes’ of ‘chronics’, and ‘chronics’ of ‘acutes’.

How The Concept Of Potentization As ‘Molecular Imprinting’ Was Evolved?

Many friends ask me: “How could you evolve your concept of ‘molecular imprints’ as the active principles of potentized drugs and your explanation of homeopathy on that basis? Why are you so much convinced regarding the correctness of your concepts?”

Actually, it was a slow evolutionary process panning through years of study, thinking, experimentation, interpretation and meditation. Here I am trying to enlist the important milestones of that evolutionary process.

  1. Most important primary observation that initiated my logical thought process was that potentized drugs works therapeutically!
  1. My second observation was that potentized drugs do not work therapeutically, if they are not ‘similimum’ to the given case.
  1. Control solutions of ethyl alcohol and water in the same ratio of potentized drugs were proved to be having no therapeutic properties.
  1. Then I observed through calculations based on Avogadro constant that there is no chance for any drug molecules to be present in a drug potentized above 12c.
  1. Potentized drugs and unpotentized alcohol/ethyl alcohol mixture (controls)have similar chemical properties. This observation indicates that no chemical changes of any sorts happen to ethyl alcohol/water mixture due to the process of potentization.
  1. Potentized drugs when heated, or subjected to strong electrical or magnetic fields lose their therapeutic properties. This observation indicates that some physical changes happens during potentization in the alchol/water mixture, that are liable to be cancelled by heat, magnetism and electricity.
  1. Evaporation rates of potentized drugs and control solutions have been found to differ. That indicates change in hydrogen bond patterns and supra-molecular rearrangements.
  1. Freezing point of potentized drugs and control solutions are different, which again indicates change in hydrogen bonding patterns and supra-molecular organization of medium during potentization.
  1. Intensity of Brownian motions is less in potentized drugs when compared to control solutions. This observation shows that freedom of movements of molecules are comparatively restricted in potentized drugs, which  indicates a supra-molecular clustering.
  1. Solubility of salts in potentized drugs and control solutions are of different rates. This observation shows that the supra-molecular properties and hydrogen bonding patterns have changed during potentization, which also indicates some sort of supra-molecular clustering.
  1. In spectroscopic studies, the rate of absorption, and refraction of light rays were found to be different in potentized drugs and control solutions. This showed that water/ethyl alcohol mixture have undergone some sort of supra-molecular clustering and re-organization during potentization.
  1. Dielectric dispersions of potentized drugs were experimentally proved to be different from that of control solutions, which indicated a molecular re-arrangement of medium during the process of potentization.
  1. In vitro and in vivo experiments proved that potentized drugs can antidote the biological effects of theirs crude forms. This convinced me that the potentized drugs contained some active principles that can act upon biological molecules in a way just opposite to the action of crude drug molecules.
  1. Study of supra-molecular structure of water, hydrogen bonding, hydration shells, clathrate compounds and supra-molecular clusters convinced me that water can exhibit some polymer-like properties at supra-molecular level.
  1. Study of molecular properties of ethyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol/water mixtures convinced me that the hydrogen bond strength of water can be enhanced by the presence of ethyl alcohol molecules in an appropriate proportion. Further, the heavy alcohol molecules can restrict the free movements of water molecules, there by helping in the stabilization of hydration shells.
  1. Study of the technology of ‘molecular imprinted polymers’ done by polymer scientists convinced me of the use of ‘molecular imprints’ as artificial binding sites for biological target molecules.
  1. Study of works done by Benveniste regarding ‘memory of water’ indicated some structural changes happening in water during successive dilution and succession. Benveniste failed to comprehend the real mechanism involved in the phenomenon of ‘water memory’ he observed.
  1. Some Russian scientists have earlier observed a phenomenon they called ‘shape memory property of water’, which they could not explain scientifically, since they also did not understand the real process of ‘molecular imprinting’ involved in it.
  1. Study of the phenomenon known as ‘hormesis’, which remains still unexplained scientifically, also led me to relate it with some sort of ‘supra-molecular’ re-arrangements happening in water in ultra dilutions.
Observation that potentized drugs act upon organism in a way exactly opposite to the original drugs indicated a process of generating three-dimensional nanocavities that can act as binding sites for drug molecules and similar pathogenic molecules, which can happen only though ‘molecular imprinting’.
Then I took up a serious re-study of biochemistry and molecular biology. Study of ‘key-lock mechanism’ involved in the dynamics of enzyme inhibitions, ‘ligand-receptor’ interactions and ‘antibody-antigen’ interactions were found to be fitting well to the concept of ‘molecular imprints’ in potentized drugs.
Through these studies, it became clear to me that ‘similia similibus curentur’ could be explained in the light of available scientific knowledge regarding the molecular level processes of pathology and therapeutics, and homeopathy is actually a higher specialized form of modern molecular medicine.

All these observations, study, updating, logical co-relating of various phenomena , and above all constant meditation led me to the conviction that ‘molecular imprinting’ is the actual process involved in potentization, and ‘molecular imprints’ are the real active principles of potentized homeopathic drugs.

It was a great revelation to me. Now I am fully convinced that I am on right path.

When I tried to explain homeopathic therapeutic principle of ‘similia similibus curentur’ on the basis of this ‘molecular imprints’ concept, everything was found to fit well to the modern scientific understanding of disease and therapeutics.