Recently, proponents of diverse shades of ‘energy medicine’ concepts about homeopathy are enthusiastically publicizing an article titled ‘Homeopathic Potentization Based on Nanoscale Domains’ as a ‘scientific proof’ for their pseudo-scientific ‘biophotonic’ theories.
This article jointly written by by Czerlinski G, Ypma T.(Department of Biology, Western Washington University , Bellingham, WA.) appeared in Journal of Alternative and Complement Medicines-December 2011 issue.
According to the authors, the “objectives of this study were to present a simple descriptive and quantitative model of how high potencies in homeopathy arise.”
“The model begins with the mechanochemical production of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals from water and the electronic stabilization of the resulting nanodomains of water molecules. The life of these domains is initially limited to a few days, but may extend to years when the electromagnetic characteristic of a homeopathic agent is copied onto the domains. This information is transferred between the original agent and the nanodomains, and also between previously imprinted nanodomains and new ones. The differential equations previously used to describe these processes are replaced here by exponential expressions, corresponding to simplified model mechanisms. Magnetic stabilization is also involved, since these long-lived domains apparently require the presence of the geomagnetic field. Our model incorporates this factor in the formation of the long-lived compound.”
“Numerical simulation and graphs show that the potentization mechanism can be described quantitatively by a very simplified mechanism. The omitted factors affect only the fine structure of the kinetics. Measurements of pH changes upon absorption of different electromagnetic frequencies indicate that about 400 nanodomains polymerize to form one cooperating unit. Singlet excited states of some compounds lead to dramatic changes in their hydrogen ion dissociation constant, explaining this pH effect and suggesting that homeopathic information is imprinted as higher singlet excited states.”
“A simple description is provided of the process of potentization in homeopathic dilutions. With the exception of minor details, this simple model replicates the results previously obtained from a more complex model. While excited states are short lived in isolated molecules, they become long lived in nanodomains that form coherent cooperative aggregates controlled by the geomagnetic field. These domains either slowly emit biophotons or perform specific biochemical work at their target.”
According to the authors, potentized medicines ‘emit biophotons’ or perform specific biochemical work at their target. That is the way they explain the therapeutic action of potentized drugs.
To verify the ‘biophoton emission theory’ of homeopathic potentization, we have to know what are biophotons.
WIKIPEDIA describes biophotons : “A biophoton (from the Greek ‘Bio’ meaning “life” and ‘photo’ meaning “light”), is a photon of light ‘emitted from a biological system’ and detected by biological probes as part of the general weak electromagnetic radiation of living biological cells. The typical detected magnitude of “biophotons” in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum ranges from a few up to several hundred photons per second per square centimeter of surface area, much weaker than in the openly visible and well-researched phenomenon of normal bioluminescence, but stronger than in the thermal, or black body radiation that so-called perfect black bodies demonstrate. The detection of these photons has been made possible (and easier) by the development of more sensitive photomultiplier tubes and associated electronic equipment. Conventional sciences suggest that chemi-excitation via oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species(ROS) and/or catalysis byenzymes (i.e. peroxidase, lipoxygenase) is a common event in the biomolecular milieu.Such reactions can lead to the formation of triplet excited species, which release photons upon returning to a lower energy level in a process analogous to phosphorescence. Since there is visible bioluminescence in many bacteria and other cells it can be inferred that the (extremely small) number of photons in ultra-weak bioluminescence is a random by-product of cellular metabolism”.
It is obvious that ‘biophotons’ are light particle emitted from biological systems as by-products of cellular metabolism. How can a scientist rationally theorize about ‘emissions’ of biophotons from homeopathic drugs which are not biological systems, but mere supra-molecular formations of water and ethyl alcohol? If they are inclined to argue that these ‘biophotons’ come from drug molecules of biological origin, what about the hundreds of mineral drugs used in homeopathy?
Did these scientists bother to explain how a ‘biophoton’ (or, let it be a photon) can act upon biological organism and produce specific therapeutic effects according to the therapeutic principle ‘similia similibus curentur’?
If the ‘biophotons’ emit from potentized drugs and act upon the organism, why not our drugs produce therapeutic effects when kept near a patient? Why should we administer the drugs into the body of the individual patient? What will happen if many drugs are kept side by side in a pharmacy, all of them emitting their biophotons and absorbing biophotons emitted by other drugs? How would these scientists manage the probability of this chaotic situation?
According to the authors, their “model begins with the mechanochemical production of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals from water and the electronic stabilization of the resulting nanodomains of water molecules”. What is this “mechanochemical production of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals from water” happening during the simple process of serial dilution and shaking involved in potentization? Can anybody ‘produce’ ‘hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals’ from water by such a simple shaking?
See how these scientists visualize the ‘transfer’ of ‘drug power’ into the ‘nanodomains’ of water during potentization:
“Electromagnetic characteristic of a homeopathic agent is copied onto the domains. This information is transferred between the original agent and the nanodomains, and also between previously imprinted nanodomains and new ones.”
According to their view, potentization involves “copying” of “electromagnetic characteristic of a homeopathic agent” or drug substance onto the ‘nanodomains’ of water formed by “production of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals from water and their electronic stabilization”. This “homeopathic information is imprinted as higher singlet excited states” in the “nanodomains”. “While excited states are short lived in isolated molecules, they become long lived in nanodomains that form coherent cooperative aggregates controlled by the geomagnetic field. These domains either slowly emit biophotons or perform specific biochemical work at their target.”
Theory of ‘water domains’ getting ‘excited states’ due to ‘transfer of electromagnetic characteristics of drug substances’, and later ‘emitting biophotons’ that can act as therapeutic ‘energy’ will be obviously welcomed by proponents of ‘energy medicine’ concepts. They can utilize theory as a ‘scientific’ explanation for their occult practices of homeopathy.
But, sorry to say- there is no ‘science’ in this theory. It is only a pseudo-scientific nonsense to say ‘biophotons’ are emitted from potentized drugs. This types of ‘theories’ help only the enemies of homeopathy by providing weapons to attack and ridicule homeopathy. It no way helps homeopathy to become scientific.
To be scientific, any ‘theory’ regarding potentization should be fitting to the existing laws and principles of scientific knowledge system, and should be capable of explaining ‘similia similibus curentur’ in terms of scientific paradigms of modern biochemistry and molecular biology. Otherwise, it will be ridiculed and out-rightly rejected by the scientific community as just another pseudoscientific exercise that would only discredit homeopathy further, and alienate us from mainstream scientific medicine.